Saturday, August 31, 2019
Learning processes are powerful aids to intelligence but sometime they fail in coping with confusing experience and complicated problems because they do not take in consideration distant times, distant place and failures. The first step in overcoming these limitations is recognizing them and trying to avoid so they would not effect negatively in our performance. Ã¢â¬Å"Experience is often a poor teacherÃ¢â¬ . Drawing conclusion from experiences is common in the business world but we tend to forget that these conclusions are merely just point of views of went wrong or not with a decision. Learning from experiences can make you fall in repetition if you see that this way of doing things did actually brought the desired outputs. By doing so we tend to forget that not every issue has the same circumstances and qualities so the same thing that worked in another issue may not work in this task. Details and causality are two main factors that sometimes can guide you in a performance that can be successful or a failure. Experiences from the history of the organization are narrowed also by the memory, conflict, turnover, and decentralization that make it difficult to be a reliable source of experience. That is why sometime experiences give a misleading route in coping with problems. Learning is a process and people can perform differently. There are people that acquire knowledge at different paces; some are what we call fast learner and slow ones. If we put these two persons in the same start, the fast learner would learn quickly and perform the activity faster than the other one. This means that the other person would never have the chance to do something and this will narrow its possibilities to progress and learn. In an organization you will find people that are inactive because they do not have the chance to be active so you will tend to rely more on the faster learner. The manager will help more in building a wall that will end up by firing the slow learner. Learning gives you a broad image of the short-run activities but it fails to give you a solution to the long-run ones. For example now we learn things that maybe in some years will be irrelevant due to the advancing of the technology and globalization, that change the markets every minute we learn. That means that you stay stuck in time, even though the market is developing and changing. You tend to apply exploitation when maybe it is exploration time and tend to apply exploration when you should apply exploitation. This imbalance is due to the learning process because you tend to apply the easiest and quickest way of dealing with an issue In conclusion learning is a process that has limitations when we have temporal myopia (short-run goals are being overestimate), spatial myopia (effect that occurs near to the learner) and failure myopia (we tend not to recognize failure and attribute them to luck). If we avoid these limitations and try not to be influenced by biases, learning can be rewarding. Our life is a journey of learning only that not every issue can be alike, so there is no perfect solution to all our problems but there are approaches from our experience that can be changed to suit a new issue. Work Cited Levinthal,Daniel & March, James. The myopia of learning. Strategic Management Journal (1986-1988); Winter 1993; 14, Special issue; ABI/IFORM Global.
Friday, August 30, 2019
People can act as catalysts for change. Both Gow and Taylor use the main characterÃ¢â¬â¢s circumstances to affect change in attitude amongst the other characters. In Ã¢â¬ËAwayÃ¢â¬â¢, TomÃ¢â¬â¢s fatal illness causes the other characters to realise the value of their lives and become more positive about life. In Ã¢â¬ËThe help', SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s mission to write a book to uncover the harsh mistreatment of the African American helpers to change the white communityÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. In both texts the authors use techniques appropriate to their medium to demonstrate this change in attitude. In Ã¢â¬ËThe HelpÃ¢â¬â¢ the character Skeeter is the catalyst for change. The change she causes is a change in mentality towards the African American helpers. This change in mentality is represented through SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s mother. Gow uses contrasting scenes to show the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s change in mentality, which is also represented through the general change in the attitude of the white community. This is shown through the juxtaposition of the early scene where Skeeter and her helpers are sitting in the television room watching an African American speak on TV. SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s mother finds them watching the African American and commands them to turn it off. With the use of a low camera angle SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s mother shows authority and power over the African American helpers as well as Skeeter herself. In the end scene Skeeter and the African American helpers are watching the same thing on TV. Skeeter sees her mother and goes to turn off the TV. SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s mother says to leave it on and joins them on the couch. The camera angle changes in this scene from the early scene whereby Taylor makes use of a low camera angle. SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s mother does not show authority or power over everyone including the African American helpers. Skeeter is shocked by this change in attitude, but is happy that her mother is finally changing her mentality towards the helpers. Therefore through the use of contrasting camera angles, Taylor shows a change in attitude, brought about by the catalyst of SkeeterÃ¢â¬â¢s character. In Ã¢â¬ËAwayÃ¢â¬â¢, Gow also uses the main character as the catalyst for change. Like in Ã¢â¬Å"The HelpÃ¢â¬ , the change he causes is a change in mentality of the other characters. This change occurs due to TomÃ¢â¬â¢s fatal illness, which makes the other characters in the play become more positive and realise how precious life is. The change in mentality is shown through one particular character, Gwen. The techniques used to show the change in mentality is the use of stage directions and dialogue. The use of these techniques show the way that Gwen changes her attitude towards life. At the beginning of the play, the use of repetition of the word Ã¢â¬ËnoÃ¢â¬â¢ demonstrates her negativity. This negativity is changed when Gwen finds out that Tom has a fatal illness and does not have very long to live. This causes Gwen to see her life in a different mentality, changing her into a nicer and more appreciative person. This is shown through the technique of stage directions in the final scene of the play, where Ã¢â¬Ëthe applause is led thunderously by GwenÃ¢â¬â¢. This technique shows the shift in mentality to a much more positive outlook on life. In conclusion, both Gow and Taylor show how people can act as catalysts for change. In both Ã¢â¬ËAwayÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËThe HelpÃ¢â¬â¢ the main characters are the catalysts for a change in mentality. This change is a time consuming process, however both Gow and Taylor show how valuable this change can be.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
10,000 Years of Andean Glacier Melt Explained - Research Paper Example The regression was basically related to the increase in temperature by 3Ã °C which resulted warming of the Pacific Ocean. The research was conducted by IRD with several phases. The first phase includes a recent dating method which aims to reconstruct the chronology of the 10,000 years of glacier melt. The research method involves a measurement of the concentration of the chemical elements which resulted in building up in rock. The glaciologists who were involved in the research work applied the past climate model to find out what exactly caused the variation in the volume of Telata glacier. The research also focused on the tropical glaciers from the beginning of the industrial period. It also focuses on the high exposure of the masses of ice at a higher altitude like 5000 m where the severity of warming is quite high. The reasons for melting of glacier has been stated by different researchers across the world in different ways but the actual causes for the Andean Glacier Melt is sti ll unknown or vaguely known to people. Most of the Andean glaciers are situated at a very high altitude and sometime the altitude is more than 5000 m. The glacier is very sensitive to the climate warming which resulted in the dislocation of the tropical glacier and the elevation.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Globalization is good. Discuss - Essay Example (Appadurai, 1996). Industrial Global production markets started surfacing and provided wider access to the international goods for the companies as well as for the customers, more specifically the movement of products and materials within and between state boundaries. In the last fifty years a raise of manufactured products greater than 100 times was recorded since 1950 in global trade. Rise of sevenfold during 2000-2007 was recorded for China's trade with Africa. Financial International financial markets emerged and provided enhanced entrance to external financing for lenders were traded each day for the purpose of increasing investments and business. The port of Shanghai held the title of the busiest port worldwide between 2005 and 2007. (Appadurai, 2001). Economic A world-wide common market was recognized which was based on the exchange of capital and goods. Approximately all renowned international IT companies are located in India and four top IT companies from all over the world were from India and they belonged to the top ten wealthy people and the combined worth of their wealth amounted to 1$160 billion. Compared to China in 2007, India had had 123,000 millionaires while China has 415,000 millionaires. Job Market In the previous years there was no competition in the job market worldwide and the destiny of the employees were tied to the destiny of state economies. However, the case is different today since after the introduction of information era enhancements in communication. As the employees compete in an international market, remunerations are not much reliant on the breakdown or achievement of the economies and this had a huge impact on the income and distribution. Political According to number of people, globalization is the development of the global government that controls the relationship with the other governments and also supports them by providing the rights that occur due to the social and economic globalization. Among all the global powers w orldwide, US is very influential politically because of its strong economy as well as wealth and China has experienced a lot of growth because of the US support. Moreover, US is also playing a major role in the development of the other economies because of its support and contribution in terms of dollars which it is providing to those economies. A number of scholars name globalization as the alteration sovereignty and they say that it reduces taxonomy and the control of national sovereign powers. (Appadurai, 2006). Informational Satellites and communication being done through fibre optic has increased the number of telephones and internet available because of which the flow of information between the distant areas has also increased. Language The most spoken language is Mandarin followed by Spanish and English and 40% of the radio programs are in English which shows that the language is very dominant and this is the most common language which is found on the Internet. Competition In order to survive the competition in the
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Article Discussion - Coursework Example Nonetheless, this management technique terrorizes the employees, as intimidation is a recipe for short-term results. In contrast, the Theory Y bases its management style on the assumption that work is a source of satisfaction given that employees willingly chose to devote their mental and physical abilities to the company. Depraved leaders are characterized by self-centered approach towards management. These leaders exhibit intelligence and high rates of success. Despite this, these leaders undermine prudent organizational behavior of embracing unity and teamwork in the decision-making processes. Through their attitude, depraved leaders practice intolerance, a trait that does not give room for recognition of the inferior groups. Therefore, the current nature of business does not consider intolerance as a component of success. Moreover, globalization and corporate social responsibility are the current trends that define the success of an organization. With depraved leaders, organizations risk the chance of failure as employee motivation plays a critical role in embracing diversity and ensuring continuity within the
Monday, August 26, 2019
Strategic Alliance - Essay Example Nike is one of the largest and most popular athletic footwear company, but it not manufacturing even a single shoe. Similarly, Boeing is one of the biggest aircraft manufacturing companies, but it does not manufacture not more than cockpits or wing bits. These companies have entered into strategic alliances with the suppliers to do the manufacturing activities for them. Strategic Alliance is an agreement between the firms for conducting the business activities together. Strategic alliance goes beyond just informal handshake agreements or partnership. It includes lengthy formal contract in which both the parties also exchange the equity and contribute capital to establish a joint venture firm or corporation Strategic alliance means merger of two companies. This is what is generally assumed, but companies are coming up for multi-strategic alliances nowadays. This might be because they are willing to utilize their strengths to controlling the market. For example, a strategic alliance of six companies was formed to develop General Magic Corporation for developing the communication software called Typescript. The companies involved in the strategic alliance are Apple, Motorola, Sony, AT&T, Philips and Matsushita (Longenecker, & TenaLoeza, 2010, p. 224). The large organizations not only form strategic alliance with big organizations but also with the small companies too. The alliances are formed in order to form joint ventures for using their skills and expertise to promote their competitive advantage. It links two business entities, without affecting the independent legal status of the firm or company (Kale, & Singh, 2009, p. 2). Strategic Alliance Trends The strategic alliances have become a superficial form of business practice, which has its primary focus on increasing the credibility of the business through association of one of more companies. It is also done for achieving the strategic objectives of the company, entering into new market, increasing the market share, increasing the delivery capacity of the company, reducing the cost of operation, and introducing innovative products or services in the market. The alliances of the companies nowadays contribute to 20-33 percent of their annual revenue. The companies get the advantage of handling larger order volumes; they get bigger customers and can offer high quality products or services to the customers. It can be seen that the strategic alliances between the companies are growing at a pace of 25 percent annually (Keasler, & Denning, n. d., p. 3). In an alliance, the different department of the whole organization get involved such as the sales, marketing, supply chain, delivery department, etc. SO it can be well assumed that the support of the internal resources is necessary for a
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Business ethics - Essay Example In such context, it is crucial for management to realize the importance of business ethics in maintaining the sustainability of business operation. Hence the study has decided to look back at importance business ethics in context to modern organizational settings. The study has selected HSBC, which is a renowned bank, for understanding the importance of business ethics in the organization. Analyzing the impact of business ethics on internal and external stakeholders of HSBC will also be the part of the analysis. In the last section the study will provide recommendation to the bank for improving their current business ethics approach. Business Ethics- Theoretical View According to research scholars such as Geraint (2003), Moberg (2003) and Kidd (2003), business ethics play significant role in those cases where the organization is suffering from asymmetric turbulence in terms of business operation, controlling activities of agents or managers, fraudulent activities to achieve undue adv antage and disregard of interest of shareholders and stakeholders. From academic viewpoint, business ethics can be subdivided into three parts such as, Descriptive Business Ethics- moral values of the business owner to run the business in transparent manner without hurting the interest of shareholders and stakeholders and Normative Business Ethics- supporting activities required to control and discourage unfair business practices by organizations (Brenkert, 2004). However, very few research scholars have actually tried to create demarcation between organizational structures driven business ethics from process driven business ethics. In this paper the study will try to identify the role of business ethics in context to organizational structure, organizational process and organizational performances. The proposed model can be viewed in the following manner. (Source: Svensson and Wood, 2011) There is no doubt that the concept of business ethics is multifaceted and number of research to pics can synchronized in implicit or explicit manner with the ethical perspective of business operation. For example, maintaining business ethics in terms offering high value to external stakeholders such as customers (Svensson, 2009), performing corporate social responsibility (CSR) in order to become responsible corporate citizen who is ready to put serious effort to improve quality of life of unprivileged section of the society (Young and Kielkiewicz-Young, 2001), improve the sustainability by forcing the supply chain partners to follow human rights while treating with workers (Lippman,1999), following green purchasing policy to ensure environmental sustainability (Zsidisin and Siferd, 2001), sustainable supply chain management (Svensson, 2007), following corporate governance codes in order to ensure better governance and decrease the scope for the organization to commit financial fraud which can not only hurt the interest of shareholders but also affect the interest of stakehold ers (La Porta et al, 1997 & Shleifer and Vishny, 1997). Ethical Structure Factors like
Service operations and manufacturing operation - Essay Example This is to create a basis for comparison. For the article, it is evident that the service operation system has higher capabilities than the manufacturing operations system because of its structural functionalities. The system has the capability to relate with the customer on healthy grounds; it is also able to markets its services, as there are direct relationships with the consumers. On the other hand, there is an analysis on the deficiencies of the manufacturing system. There is also a discussion on the benefits behind the integration of the two systems. From the discussion relating to the difference, it is evident that, there will be an improvement in supervision, operations, and the cost of production. Introduction Service, manufacturing, and agriculture are the key economic activities in any economy. In most of the developed nations, services and manufacturing sectors of the economy constitute around 75% of the Gross Domestic Product. However, in the recent decades the growth and development is as a result of these sectors of the economy. For the last ten years, it is evident that the service sector in the economy has steadily increased from 40% to 53%. This is in reference to the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Growth of sectors such as the IT sector is the key factors leading to the admirable change. If we refer to the history of economics, it is evident that exceedingly few governments had a taxing system to charge the service industry.
Saturday, August 24, 2019
A dating agency - Essay Example In the dating agency its role is to act as an intermediary but is not held responsible if the two people meet and harm or are truly in love (Francis taylor, 2014). Its main role is to ensure that it links up people from different people to fulfill their desires. Joining a dating agency is always free but there are different packages where some charges are applied this can be a one off thing or after some time elapses. The charges and any difficulties of anyone accessing it. It is good to realize that in as much as the requirements require one to place their real name they cannot be counterchecked. The dating company should improve their transactional payment this requires that we ensure the payment portal is secured and there is enough space where hackers cannot be able to access. It also needs to ensure that the respond channel is instant so as to notify the client that the money has been credited to the companies account in a timely manner. Having such information will act as a guide for the business to show that transparency has been supported by the system built. It is very important to create an app for this where interested party can download and ensure that their business has been accessible to existing and new business in a formal way (JunghoBaek, 2008).Though the clients here to link up with a clear background partner they may wish to remain anonymous this can be a catch 22 for the organization to ensure that business has been to be done professionally. The business setup should ensure that net neutrality does not affect the site of the dating agency. This is also important to realize that also the confidentiality should be governed to prevent strangers from accessing other business. It is thus important for the software to be upgraded with utmost professionalism. One of the challenges in this century is about cybercrime. Events of the recent past show
Friday, August 23, 2019
Does a nurse with a BSN make a difference in patient outcomes - Essay Example In this paper I will be answering the question of whether nurses with BSN make a positive difference in patient outcomes. Research by a different organization and scholars converges at the conclusion that competency, knowledge and application of specific skills significantly depends on educational attainment. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, nurses with BSN degrees are better placed to effectively meet the demands and expectations of the modern society. Nurses with BSN have a good training and as such develop strong critical thinking skills, leadership abilities, capacities to manage cases and promote healthcare outcomes. These nurses have a strong foundation that enables them to effectively work in both outpatient and inpatient settings without little challenge. It is for such unique and beneficial capabilities that baccalaureate prepared nurses are highly regarded and associated with promoting positive patient outcomes. It has been identified in the past few years that the level of education really makes a great difference in the way nursing is practiced. The BSN program covers content taught at both diploma and associate degree as well as providing students with a deeper understanding of the entire nursing profession. It covers research, leadership in nursing, physical sciences, social sciences and public health among many other courses. This broader coverage prepares the student nurses in a manner that allows them to understand the different issues impacting on patients and influencing healthcare provision. An inverse relationship has been demonstrated to exist between the number of BSN nurses and patient mortality when in hospitals; mortality decreases with increase in number of BSN nurses (Kimberly, 2009). Education for the nurse has also association with the safety of patients as well as quality of healthcare offered. Education provides the necessary theoretical as well as practical
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Marathon Running Essay Runners come in all shapes and sizes. I have seen 300-pound men and women at the start of a race and in contrast the chiseled muscles of the elite runners. The reasons for running are as various as the runners themselves. Some run for weight lose, mental or physical health, competition, and charity. There are many physical health benefits for running; Ã¢â¬Å"Human bodies burn about 2,000-2,500 calories a day in normal activities. Running 5 miles a day can burn an additional 500 calories. Ã¢â¬ If this same formula holds true, a person completing a marathon will have burnt close to 2,600 calories. However, how fast a person doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t correspond with how much weight they may loose while running. Ã¢â¬Å"For example, a 220-pound person running an eight-minute mile burns 150 calories, while a 120-pound person running at the same pace burns only 82. Every personÃ¢â¬â¢s body requires an excess of 3,500 calories in order to gain a pound or a deficit of 3,500 calories in order to lose a pound. Thus, 180-pound person who runs 5 miles each day will lose about 5 pounds a month. However, as his or her weight goes down, he or she will burn fewer calories per mileÃ¢â¬ according to a study conducted at Vanderbilt University. According to RunnerÃ¢â¬â¢s World editor Hal Higgdon. Ã¢â¬Å"Running can also have many psychological benefits. Most significantly runners typically report being happier and feeling less stressed than their counterparts who do not run or exercise regularly. Running actually has the ability to alter an individuals moods because hormones called endorphins are released while running. These hormones create a sense of euphoria often referred to as a runnerÃ¢â¬â¢s high and can result in an improvement in the runnerÃ¢â¬â¢s mood. Ã¢â¬ With these endorphins being released into the runnerÃ¢â¬â¢s body, running can be very addictive. A man or woman can feel like theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been turned into Michael Jordan and anything, even running 26 miles, is possible. Running a marathon and the distances to train are also almost spiritual. When I run I am able to solve my companies, personal, families, and the whole worlds problems. I have come up with some of the most life altering and affirming choices in the sunrise of an 8-mile run. Running is also a great stress reliever while running I am able to focus on the road and the miles as they build. I am able to forget about the office, family, or other concerns. There are 26. reasons why a marathon is hard. To put this distance in perspective if you were to drive your car at 60 mph it would take a half an hour to drive that distance. But while running the marathon there is no downtime. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re the machine, says physical therapist Jim Wharton of New York-based Wharton Performance, which trains world-class athletes. The debate about the difficulty of the marathon, doesn t center just on the physical aspects. Motivation, confidence and mental toughness are necessary, says Stephen Russo, director of sports psychology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Health System. Running is painful; itÃ¢â¬â¢s tedious, and exhausting. After a few miles our bodies scream for us to stop and rest. When the body screams stop that is when the mind takes over and you keep running. Through my experiences in running and race competitions I can say a marathon is not something that can be described it is something must be experienced. In a marathon the participant will be competing against hundreds and in larger races thousands of other hopefuls. In many marathons time restrictions are placed on which the marathon will end. -8 hours after the marathon has began, barricades will be removed and the race rout will be dismantled. If a runner is unable to finish in the allotted time the race officials may take them to the finish line and will not allowed to finish. However during those 6-8 hours a runner can run, jog, or walk any distance they want. When Khalid Khannouchi won the London Marathon last year, he didnt do any walking: He set a world record of 2 hours, 5 minutes and 38 seconds. For elite athletes like Khannouchi distance running is a way of life. Marathoners seem either to be training or getting ready for the next workout. You wake up every morning and you know what you have to do. You have long mileage to accumulate. Sometimes youre already tired from your last two or three workouts. You still have to wake up, have the motivation and go outside and do the training. Ã¢â¬ Khannouchi said. For me running is not simply about the weight loss or the constant inquires of family, friends, and co-workers who ask, Ã¢â¬Å"How many mile(s) did you run today? Ã¢â¬ When I run I am only accountable to my trusty stopwatch and myself. The marathon is my Everest. I will be back. Standing there with hundreds of other runners in tank tops and short on a cold fall morning, waiting for the starter pistol. I dont run for the medal or the crowd I run for me. I run despite the 9 times out of 10 it will hurt, but I keep going. I run for that one time that it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t and I am able to finish my run and look down at my stop watch and be excited about a new personal best time, if only a few seconds. I run because I know it will hurt but I keep going and I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t give into the pain. I am an athlete. I am runner.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Motivational Impairment in Schizophrenia ANTICIPATING PLEASURE AND EFFORT IN SCHIZOPHRENIA 1 Do People With Schizophrenia Have Difficulty Anticipating Pleasure, Engaging in Effortful Behavior, or Both? David E. Gard, Amy H. Sanchez, Kathryn Cooper, Melissa Fisher, Coleman Garrett, and Sophia Vinogradov Citation Gard, D. E., Sanchez, A. H., Cooper, K., Fisher, M., Garrett, C., Vinogradov, S. (2014, August 18). Do People With Schizophrenia Have Difficulty Anticipating Pleasure, Engaging in Effortful Behavior, or Both?. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000005 Introduction The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Ã¢â¬Å"motivational impairmentÃ¢â¬ on the goal directed behavior of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. This was accomplished by measuring the levels of pleasure (reward) and effortfulness in the activities and future goals of the subjects. These two factors were selected to be measured due to the fact that they are two of the component processes of motivation which has been proven by previous research to be affected by schizophrenia. Research has found inconsistencies in the assessment of pleasure and reward in schizophrenia patients. For instance, while Anhedonia has been frequently reported to be associated with schizophrenia (Herbener Harrow, 2002; see Gard et al., 2014), patients do not report a decrease in pleasure or positive stimuli (Cohen Minor, 2010; see Gard et al., 2014). These inconsistencies have been explained to be the result of clear-cut distinctions between the different temporal components associated with specific types of reward and pleasure. Schultz (2002) and Wise (2002) (as cited in Gard et al., 2014) have shown that there is a physiological difference in how anticipatory pleasure and consummatory (in-the moment) pleasure are processed in the brain. While consummatory pleasure involves serotonergic and opioid systems, anticipatory pleasure involves dopaminergic and mesolimbic projections (Schultz, 2002; Wise, 2002; see Gard et al., 2014). In another study conducted using an Ecological Mome ntary Assessment (EMA), participants with schizophrenia showed similar levels of consummatory pleasure, but depleted levels of anticipatory pleasure (Gard et al., 2007; see Gard et al., 2014). Consequently, pleasure was selected to be a dependent variable (DV) in this study. Individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia have reported difficulty in anticipating rewards (Buck Lysar, 2013; Gard et al., 2007; see Gard et al., 2014) as well as in processing rewards (Strauss, Waltz Gold 2008; see Gard et al., 2014). The link between reward and motivation has been established through the study conducted by Juckel et al. (2006) (as cited in Gard et al., 2014) which showed decreased ventral striatal activation during reward processing from individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia; decreased ventral striatal activation has been associated with anhedonia (Juckel et al., 2006; see Gard et al., 2014). This also relates reward to anticipatory pleasure. Research has indicated that patients with high negative symptoms of schizophrenia have difficulty assessing the effort required to accomplish a task which would provide a high reward (Gold et al., 2013; see Gard et al., 2014). Furthermore, in addition to difficulties assessing the effort involved, patients also appeared to have difficulty putting in the effort required to do a particular task. In relation to reward, Fervaha, Graff-Guerrero, et al. (2013) (as cited in Gard et al., 2014) showed that patients of schizophrenia only had problems when it came to the assessment of the effort involved to achieve a reward, and not when ascertaining the value of a reward. (Fervaha, Graff-Guerrero, et al. 2013; see Gard et al., 2014) In light of the aforementioned findings in past literature, the researchers came up with three assumptions, and the resulting research questions reflected them. The assumptions were that individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia would have: A deficit in anticipatory pleasure Difficulty in anticipating and processing rewards Difficulty assessing and expending the necessary effort required to accomplish a task Using these assumptions, the researchers of the present study came up with 5 research questions. The following has been taken from Gard et al. (2014) Compared with a socio-demographically matched group of healthy participants, do participants with schizophrenia demonstrate fewer daily activities and goals, decreased anticipatory pleasure for their upcoming goals, decreased pleasure-based goals, but intact in-the-moment pleasure? (Hypothesis) Do participants with schizophrenia pursue goals and activities that are less effortful than healthy comparison participants, and do they have difficulty assessing the effort of an upcoming goal? (Hypothesis) Do people with schizophrenia have difficulty completing their goals, and is this related to anticipation or experience of pleasure, or to how effortful the goal is? (Hypothesis) In people with schizophrenia, what is the relationship of anticipatory pleasure and effort exertion or assessment to: cognitive dysfunction, symptoms, and functioning? (Alternative Hypothesis) To what degree could group differences found in Questions 1Ã¢â¬â 4 be explained by any other non-diagnostic group differences? (Alternative Hypothesis) Participants The selection of participants differed between the experimental and control group. The subjects for the control group were selected through postings on the Internet and the distribution of flyers in the San Francisco Bay Area. Initially, forty-three individuals agreed to participate and signed the informed consent forms. However two of them dropped out; one, finding the study to be too much of a burden, dropped out on the first day, and the other failed to respond to even a third of the phone calls. The subjects for the experimental group were selected from outpatient clinics and day treatment centers in the Bay Area. Fifty patients of schizophrenia initially signed the informed consent forms but three decided to drop out; two dropped out even before the experiment started citing that it was too intrusive, and the other dropped out after two calls on the first day. All in all, the results of the study were formulated based on the results from forty-one subjects without schizophrenia and forty-seven subjects with either schizophrenia (n=31) and schizoaffective disorder (n=16). Diagnoses for the conditions were confirmed for all participants using the DSM-IV-TR. Strict exclusion criteria for the whole sample, and especially for the patient group, were established and implemented. Individuals who had had traumatic head injuries which leads to bouts of unconsciousness, had substance abuse problems in the last six months, mental disorders, or illiterate in English were all excluded. Patients who had been hospitalized in the last three months or had had their medication or dosage changed in the last month were also excluded from the study. Both groups were predominantly white males and had relatively no demographic differences between groups except for the symptoms for the disorder and employment rates. Only 17 percent of the individuals in the patient groups were employed full time or part time (4% and 13% respectively), compared to the 68 percent of full time and part time employees (24% and 44% respectively) in the control group. The experimenters did account for this discrepancy during the results phase. Method Four different types of assessments were used during this study, although the EMA remained the primary form of assessment of pleasure and effort. The Ecological Momentary Assessment is generally used in situations where specific activities and goals of the participants in a study need to be explicated. This study utilized a modified version of the EMA where cell phone calls were used instead of the traditional self-report forms, which were filled at particular intervals of time; cell phones were provided to every participant irrespective of who does or doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t own a cell phone. Trained research assistants called each participant four times every day, between 0900hrs and 2100hrs, for seven days to conduct a Ã¢â¬Å"semi-structuredÃ¢â¬ interview. A majority of the questions were open ended and participants were encouraged to give detailed descriptions of their daily activities and goals. Some questions asked them how much pleasure/effort was associated with a particular task; their responses were rated on a Likert Scale (0 = not at all; 5 = extremely). The answers were categorized based on the research questions. Four independent raters then scored the pleasurability, effortfulness, difficulty, and etcÃ¢â¬ ¦ of all the goals and activities reported by the participants on a 0-3 Likert Scale. A subset of participants with no demographic differences from the original sample was also tested to determine the difficulty of the tasks they attempted; also measured on a 0-5 Likert Scale. After the completion of the week of EMA, two independent research assistants travelled to the homes of the participants in order to determine the levels of stimulation and reward provided by the environment. Several subjects from the patient and control group (seven and nine respectively) decided to opt out from this stage of assessment citing different reasons. The levels of stimulation and reward were measured in terms of three elements; aesthetics of the home, availability of media, and social stimulation. These were measured using a combination of a modified version of the Environmental Assessment Scale (EASy) and the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME). Scores from each of the three elements as well as individual scores were averaged; the results had high inter-rater reliability. Two additional assessments were conducted on the patient group; they were tested for neurocognition, and were also clinically rated for functioning. During the former, 40 subjects with no demographic differences completed a Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (METRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery. An overall average of their results was used for all the future analyses. During the latter, a Quality of Life Scale (QLS) was used to assess overall functioning of patients with respect to elements such as Ã¢â¬Å"social initiativeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"capacity for empathyÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬Å"motivationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"anhedoniaÃ¢â¬ were not measured since they were already been used as DVs for the EMA. Procedure Rigorous pilot testing was carried before the actual experiment was conducted. Factors such as whether participants understand what the terms Ã¢â¬Å"activityÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"goalsÃ¢â¬ meant in the context of the present study were determined during the piloting phase. After participants were selected, orientations on how to properly respond to an EMA during laboratory testing were conducted; they were subsequently required to provide written informed consent before going any further. Most of the basic questions that research assistants asked during the study were previously determined with respect to their effectiveness. Before they were provided a larger sample of the study to be rated, the coders were extensively trained for their task using a smaller subset of the original sample. When the results from the EMA were presented to the four independent raters, the responses from the experimental and control group were presented together in a randomized fashion. Attributes that were to be rated by the coders (such as pleasurable activities and effortful activities) were clearly defined within parameters. As previously mentioned, cell phones were provided to each participant to be used purely for the purposes of the study, and to be returned after its conclusion. The EMA and subsequent home assessments were recorded on audio for post hoc quality assessment. Monetary compensations were provided to every participant upon the completion of the whole study (marked by the returning of the cell phones) and for the completion of the several different assessments conducted during it; the amounts were different for each assessment. Data Analysis The independent variables (IVs) for all stages of assessment were individuals with schizophrenia and individuals without schizophrenia. The dependent variables (DVs), however, werenÃ¢â¬â¢t as consistent throughout the experiments, except for pleasure and effort. A number of other variables such as reward, difficulty, and sociability were also measured during the different stages of the study. The basic design of every experiment conducted in the study was to determine how the experimental group was different from the control group with respect to the numerous DVs they were being tested on. Two types of analyses were used to determine the statistical significance of the results obtained. The theoretical principles of these analyses are too convoluted to be properly explained, but for all intents and purposes, they seem to have been implemented correctly. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used in EMA analyses. Its effectiveness comes from the fact that it can categorize data into separate levels so that analysis of data from one level wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t influence others. The EMA data were separated into Level one data (the multiple observations of participants) and level two data (between group differences in terms of neurocognition and functioning). For each research question and assessment, separate analyses of variation (ANOVA) were computed and their significance determined. Significance levels obtained through the HLM were presented as Ã¢â¬Å"pseudo-r2Ã¢â¬ . Independent sample t tests were conducted on the results obtained during the home assessments. It was used to determine whether or not the average level of stimulation that was computed for the control and experimental group was significant, with respect to each of the three aforementioned elements they were being measured on. Furthermore, the significance for the results of all five of the research questions seems to involve computation of t tests. The p values for them varied from 0.5, 0.1, and 0.001. Limitations and Future Research Dr. Marvin Monroe, Department of Psychology, Springfield University Sir, As requested, I have reviewed the study about pleasure and effort in schizophrenia, and it has got a number of interesting findings. Analysis of the results revealed that subjects with schizophrenia indeed set less effortful goals and engaged in less effortful activities. They also found that patients had difficulty determining with accuracy how difficult or effortful a task was going to be (in terms of resultant rewards). However, unlike the two aforementioned findings which were within the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ expected results, the final finding was not; it showed that patients with schizophrenia engaged in more pleasurable activities, and that they set goals that were, and also anticipated by them, to be more pleasurable. I also analyzed the study for potential limitations and further research areas. In terms of limitations, it had many. Employment differences between the two sample groups felt like a deal breaker; however, the researchers did not find any significant difference when they computed the study for employment differences. The researchers themselves pointed out many, if not most, of the limitations that I found in this study. They highlighted four of them in the discussions and gave possible reasons for their occurrence. The foremost limitation according to the researchers was the reason behind the unexpected result which disproved their hypothesis. According to them, the social interactions with the research assistants might have induced pleasurable feelings within some participants. Other limitations include them focusing solely on short-term goals, the relatively new use of home assessment as a tool for measuring motivation in schizophrenia patients (which they also pointed out as a fut ure research area), and the fact that some assessments used fewer number of participants than the actual sample group. The researchers reported that there are no data available on Ã¢â¬Å"the relationship between effort assessment and functioningÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"assessment of effort in daily life in SchizophreniaÃ¢â¬ . Another key area of research could be why social interactions increased anticipatory pleasure in patients with schizophrenia. This study illustrates several different ways in which schizophrenia patients could increase their motivation about everyday activities and goals. It was a very fascinating read. Thank you for giving me the opportunity to review such a study. Sincerely, Ibrahim Fatheen Abdul Sameeu
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Geographic Impacts on Health | Reflection Have you ever heard the phrase by Margaret Mead, Ã¢â¬Å"You are unique just like everyone else?Ã¢â¬ I believe everybody is unique but similar in their own way. It is because of this that I consider our perception of health, regardless if it is in the planning, implementation, and evaluation stage, varies tremendously yet remains the same in many ways. Our notion of health strongly depends on so many factors such as demography, ethnicity, religion, tradition, and values. Demographic distribution of populations has a very big impact on health with regards to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of health interventions because the bigger the population in a certain area, the bigger the intervention. For example, a town of 1,000 people will require less planning, executing the plan will be drastically easier, and evaluating the success of the intervention can be done smoothly compared to a city of 100,000 people. Also, certain areas tend to have a higher prevalence of certain diseases. By studying this, health interventions can be tailored to target certain health concerns or illnesses from certain areas. Political values of a certain country can affect the different stages of health intervention because most health related projects, these days, needs the approval of the government. Depending on the government, some proposed health projects can take years to fruition while others might not take that long. Furthermore, if the politics of a country is shady, the chances of a proposed health project to be approved or implemented is slim to none. Religion can be one of the hardest things to deal with when it comes to the stages of healthcare intervention. As a nurse, I have experienced first-hand the impact of religion has on certain medical treatment. There are some religious beliefs that are not too hard to handle but there some religious beliefs that can take it to the extremes. One of the hardest things I have ever been through was when my beliefs and values contradicts a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s religious beliefs especially when it involves life and death. Ethnicity also plays an important role in determining the proper intervention. It is a known fact that there are certain illnesses that affect certain ethnic groups. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"the rate of dementia on admission to nursing homes is higher among black residents than among white residents. Weintraub D, et al. (2000).Ã¢â¬ Even though dementia does not have a cure, people can tailor their healthcare interventions to fit the needs of different ethnic groups. But this is only the tip of an iceberg. There are many diseases and illnesses associated with ethnicity. By knowing such data, people can go out of their way to limit a certain disease or illness thereby, hopefully, preventing the disease or illness from ever happening. Having been lucky to travel to different countries, I can say that human values really does have an impact on health interventions. One very big example is how Filipinos value the elderly. I am not insinuating that other countries do not value their elderly or Filipinos are better at valuing their elderly. I am just implying that we have a different way of taking care of our elderly. Filipinos seem to get a sense of fulfilment when taking care of their parents. I believe in taking care of my parents when they get old because they took care of me when I was young. I will send them to a rest home not because there are not any rest homes in the Philippines, but because I want to keep them close and connected Ã¢â¬â they are and will always be a part of the family. Since my beliefs and values have been instilled in me and because I have seen how my parents took care of their parents, it has now become sort of a tradition in which I and my fellow Filipinos take pride of. This is one way on how tradition impacts healthcare intervention. But there are also other ways. In many countries, especially in remote areas, traditional medicine is still being practiced and people in these areas believe this is the only form of medicine out there. A strong push for knowledge would be the proper intervention here. Having mentioned all these, it is safe to say that determinants either have a direct or indirect impact on health interventions. Also, some determinants can either be a deterrent or an opportunity. By deterrent, I mean those rare ones where health interventions canÃ¢â¬â¢t be implemented because certain beliefs will not permit such mediation. However, determinants can also be an opportunity to come up with a better plan, a more effective implementation, and a more efficient evaluation system of a healthcare intervention. According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, Attitude is the way you think about someone or something. Since we are all unique in our own way, it is safe to say that we also have different attitudes towards someone or something. You may like the Miami Heat while I like the San Antonio Spurs. Having this in mind, it would not be a long shot to conclude that our individual attitude towards health can have a great impact, directly or indirectly, towards planning, implementation, and evaluation of healthcare interventions. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of health and illness is different no matter where you go. The World Health Organization defines health as Ã¢â¬Å"physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.Ã¢â¬  These days, we are more united in trusting medicine and research than resorting to traditional medicine. But, that does not mean traditional medicine did not have the same attitude towards health and illness. Ã¢â¬Å"Traditional medicine practice (TMP) within Aboriginal Australia encompasses a holistic worldview which reflects that of the World Health OrganizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ definition of healthÃ¢â¬  Oliver, Stefanie. (2013). However, the practice of traditional medicine is slowly becoming a lost trade primarily due to colonisation, medical advancement, research enhancement, and technological improvement. Nowadays, most of us rely on science rather than traditional medicine. Have you ever wondered what brought about the advent of medical advancement? Funny as this may sound, most drugs today are of herbal descent and it is very important to recognize the value traditional medicine had on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s medicine. There are still places where traditional medicine is still accepted and is still being practiced. Even in a small country like the Philippines, indigenous areas still believe that illness is caused by Ã¢â¬Å"voodoo magicÃ¢â¬ and that a Ã¢â¬Å"witch doctorÃ¢â¬ and his/her methods serve as the cure for such illness. In Korea, roots of certain plants are mixed in a drink and is believed to improve and restore homeostasis. Acupuncture is a method of needle insertion at various points of the skin to stimulate circulation and improve overall balance. This is believed to originate from China. How health is accepted and practiced in an area will depend on how the public values the importance of health. With all the different diseases out there, I believe that most countries consider health as a big priority and it is very evident from all the research being done to find a cure for certain diseases such as cancer, diabetes, HIV, and many more. It is not only through research that indicates how much importance the public considers health. Diet programs, exercise programs, and even healthier TV shows are being shared and broadcasted in hopes to help gain and inspire a healthier wellbeing. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards health and medical professionals is essential to healthcare interventions because if people were not concerned about their own health, they would not seek the aid of doctors, traditional healers, or medical professionals. If they do not need help from medical professionals then there would not be a need for any planning, implementation, and evaluation. However, most people value their lives. They, generally, value their own health and fear what could happen if they do not take care of themselves. That is why people are slowly learning to consult dieticians to help them eat healthier. People are seeking the aid from trainers to get them into shape. People are even considering the use of traditional medicine and traditional methods (e.g. acupuncture) to do whatever it takes to be healthier. In my own opinion, especially here in New Zealand, the public is very concern about their health and also their environment. They are starting to open up to a more Ã¢â¬Å"organicÃ¢â¬ way of being healthy. These days, people are slowly Ã¢â¬Å"going greenÃ¢â¬ and this is why they are exploring different alternatives to common medicine all for the sake of being healthy. I believe the media plays a vital role for the immergence of the Ã¢â¬Å"going greenÃ¢â¬ lifestyle that people all over the world are slowly following suit. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude towards health, illness, and medical professionals is very important. Without the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s support, nothing will get done. The first thing that comes to mind when people mention New Zealand is the natural beauty this country possesses. New Zealand is surrounded by beautiful coastlines waiting to be discovered and crystal clear pristine waters to be explored. Aside from the coastline, New Zealand boasts of majestic snow-capped peaks and breath-taking waterfalls. We all got to see a glimpse of its immense beauty through the Lord of the Rings movie series and the Hobbit movie series. But the beauty of New Zealand is not only evident looking form the outside-in but also from the inside-out. Here, beauty runs skin deep. New Zealand is a melting pot of multiple cultures ranging from Maori, European, Pacific Island and Asian descent Ã¢â¬â all of which are very proud of their ancestry. With all these different cultures, it is hard to imagine how people get along. However, people just make it work here. They respect each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s variances. This, for me, is what makes New Zealand unique and special. This kind of respect towards one another is generated from New ZealandÃ¢â¬â¢s founding document Ã¢â¬â The Treaty of Waitangi. This treaty simply implies that Maori people have the same rights as British people. This attitude and way of thinking has been instilled on every resident that it has robbed off on other settlers. So people accept each other equally. More so, people are learning to adapt to eachÃ¢â¬â¢s culture. This is even evident when it comes to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of healthcare interventions. For example, the MaoriÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural influence has been socially accepted that the whole nation is working together to maintain and preserve such a culture. It is a fact that Maoris generally have an obesity problem, which is a potential for diabetes, so the whole community is working hand in hand to provide means to aid the Maoris in tackling this problem. Health leaders are assisting whanau to come up with ways to address such an issues through proper education, training, and other means. But the community is not only helping the Maoris because the Maoris are also helping the community by educating them on their ways of traditional medicine. Since New Zealand is a very diverse country, all cultures are being treated the same way. More and more acupuncture facilities are popping up all over major cities. People are learning different herbal remedies from Asia to treat numerous ailments. Yoga, which originated from India, is just as popular here. People are learning how to eat healthier and exercise regularly like most Asian countries do. The influence is great and the impact is clear. It is up to us to absorb all these new cultural insights and choose a healthier lifestyle.  Weintraub D, Raskin A, Ruskin PE, Gruber-Baldini AL, Zimmerman SI, Hebel JR, et al. Racial differences in the prevalence of dementia among patients admitted to nursing homes.Psychiatric Services.2000;51:1259Ã¢â¬â1264.  World Health Organization:Declaration of Alma-Ata. Alma-Ata: USSR; 1978. [Proceedings of the International Conference on Primary Health Care] 6Ã¢â¬â12 September  Oliver, Stefanie. (2013). The role of traditional medicine practice in primary health care within Aboriginal Australia: a review of the literature. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2013, 9:46. doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-9-46
Monday, August 19, 2019
Comparing Welfare Provision in Germany and England "Our state reduces more and more its responsibility to provide welfare among the people". This is a statement that you can hear very often saying Germans about their welfare state in comparison with other welfare systems, as for instance the English system. This essay examines the similarities and differences between the German and the English welfare provision focusing on the extent to which this provision is provided. To understand the appropriacy and to discuss the extent of the provision it is helpful, firstly, to start with a brief definition of how these countries define a welfare state, and proceed with the different models that we encounter in Germany and in the UK. We continue with comparing and contrasting the extent of welfare provision in both countries. Since this is a wide area to discuss we concentrate on special provisions for instance the unemployment benefits and health care, since they are considered most relevant to the societies. Related to this analysis, we then highlight the appropriacy of the provision in the twenty first century. Finally, we come to the conclusion that the extent of the provision in both countries is similarly extensive but differs in the amount to which benefits and services are delivered. Furthermore, the argumentation will show that the appropriacy of welfare provision is needed, more than ever with regard to globalization and poverty. In general a welfare state is concerned with the welfare that the citizens are provided by their governments. Countries implement social and welfare policies to provide more social security and oppo... ... http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/modern/uksociety/income_wealth1_rev.shtml * Claudia Braczko. (20/09/2004). Arbeitsmarktreformen in England und Deutschland. Retrieved December 28, 2004, from http://idw-online.de/pages/de/news85895 * IWB online. (23/09/1996). Kohl government axes German welfare state. Retrieved December 26, 2004, from http://www.wsws.org/public_html/prioriss/iwb9-23/kohl.htm * Pieter van Houten. (10/11/ 2004). The welfare state in crisis?. Retrieved December 27, 2004, from http://www.chu.cam.ac.uk/~pjv24/pol4-handout-I9.htm * The Robert Gordon University. An introduction to social policy. Retrieved December 27, 2004, from http://www2.rgu.ac.uk/publicpolicy/ 1 21/11/04 (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/) 2 21/11/04 (http://www.destatis.de/indicators/d/arb210ad.htm)
SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s Need for the Registration of Handguns Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Guns are an instrument that even the most careful of people could do harm with. Gun owners should go to firearm safety classes so they will be educated on proper handling and storage of the gun. While this should only be voluntary, something should be done to insure that guns are only sold to people who have a safe background and are of age. Congress should mandate the registration of handguns in order to keep criminals from possessing guns, to cut back on violence in the home, and to avoid accidental or intentional violence among children. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The Federal Government today is putting forth much effort in order to control the purchase and registration of handguns. In 1993, Congress approved the Brady Bill that requires a mandatory five-day waiting period when buying a gun. The recent school shootings have pushed Congress to pass a bill requiring approximately 80% of handguns to be produced with child safety locks. The ultimate goal of the government is to ban the sale of firearms to the public. By starting out small, and having big goals, later generations will enjoy peaceful lives. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, guns used in the home for protection purposes are becoming more of a danger than an object of security. They have taken over the interest of everyone who thinks they are in danger. Even with the protection of a handgun, statistics show that crimes are still being committed. According to the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics Ã¢â¬Å"an average of only about 65,000 defensive uses of guns each year compared to the more than 800,000 crimes committed with gunsÃ¢â¬ (Mcdowell 1982-84). Guns are a danger in the household if marital disputes and domestic violence are present. If a gun is a readily available object then the chances of it being used to let out anger and frustration instead of self-protection is great. Mercy Saltzman reports that Ã¢â¬Å"having a gun in the home also increases the risk that incidents of domestic violence will result in homicide.Ã¢â¬ He goes on to point out Ã¢â¬Å"family and intimate assaults involving firearms are twelve times more likely to result in death than non-firearm related assaultsÃ¢â¬ (Saltzman 3043-47). In lieu of these statements, one can see the present danger in keeping a firearm in a household. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Another reason to mandate the registration of handguns is because guns and criminals are not a healthy combination.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Sibling rivalry (the slightly-less-amazing adventures of Professor Sanderson's Sociobiology discussion group) Why yes, it's... The slightly-less-amazing adventures of Professor Sanderson's Sociobiology discussion group! Today's topic: Sibling Rivalry ** Professor Armand Sanderson's Sociobiology lecture was not quite as popular as his brother Julian's Paleobio class. Partly this was because sociobio did not lend itself to psycho-Permian field trips; partly this was because he, unlike his Cosmopolitan brother, looked more like a lumberjack than a professor. In fact, the highest attendance he'd ever recorded occurred on the day he brought Julian in as a guest. This annoyed him. "Good morning," he addressed the sea of faces sourly. "As I'm sure you all know, today we have my brother Julian in as a guest." Julian waved cheerily. Fifty-seven eyelids batted. "He's here for today's discussion on the biological origins and implications of sibling rivalry among humans. I expect you all to participate." Despite his gruffness, he received only minimal acknowledgement. "Julian," he continued, noting with ire the sudden leap in his students' attention, "is here to provide a living example of the concepts we're about to discuss. He's also good with animal behavior, so he'll be starting you off today with some of the biological bases of sibling competition." He narrowed his eyes. "I expect you to pay attention to what he's saying." The threat was habitual, and, in this case (he again noted with ire) completely unnecessary. The class had no trouble obeying. As Julian stepped forward, all talk immediately ceased---though some of the students' comprehensive faculties ceased along with it. "Good morning, everybody!" Julian chirped. "Like Armand said, today we're here to discuss sibling rivalry. We don't have a lot of time, so I'll just jump right in. Now, how many of you here have ever fought with your brothers and sisters?" All but a few hands went up. Julian nodded, smiling. "Right. So you would say it's a common problem?" The class murmured agreement. "Well, you're absolutely right. This may come as a surprise to you, but humans aren't the only species who get ticked off by their siblings. In fact, sibling rivalry is ubiquitous in nature. ((5))" Leaning back, Julian lifted himself to sit on the edge of Armand's desk. Armand, typically, scowled. "For a good example, look at baby pigs," the younger professor explained. "They push each other out of the way so they can get at their mom's anterior teats---that's where the best milk is.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
International law Main articles: Public international law, Conflict of laws, and European Union law Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations system was agreed during World War II International law can refer to three things: public international law, private international law or conflict of laws and the law of supranational organisations. Public international law concerns relationships between sovereign nations. The sources for public international law development are custom, practice and treaties between sovereign nations, such as the Geneva Conventions.Public international law can be formed by international organisations, such as the United Nations (which was established after the failure of the League of Nations to prevent the Second World War), the International Labour Organisation, the World Trade Organisation, or the International Monetary Fund. Public international law has a special status as law because there is no international police forc e, and courts (e. g. the International Court of Justice as the primary UN judicial organ) lack the capacity to penalise disobedience. 22] However, a few bodies, such as the WTO, have effective systems of binding arbitration and dispute resolution backed up by trade sanctions.  Conflict of laws (or Ã¢â¬Å"private international lawÃ¢â¬ in civil law countries) concerns which jurisdiction a legal dispute between private parties should be heard in and which jurisdiction's law should be applied. Today, businesses are increasingly capable of shifting capital and labour supply chains across borders, as well as trading with overseas businesses, making the question of which country has jurisdiction even more pressing.Increasing numbers of businesses opt for commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958.  European Union law is the first and, so far, only example of an internationally accepted legal system other than the UN and the World Trade Organisation. Given the tren d of increasing global economic integration, many regional agreementsÃ¢â¬âespecially the Union of South American NationsÃ¢â¬âare on track to follow the same model.In the EU, sovereign nations have gathered their authority in a system of courts and political institutions. These institutions are allowed the ability to enforce legal norms both against or for member states and citizens in a manner which is not possible through public international law.  As the European Court of Justice said in the 1960s, European Union law constitutes Ã¢â¬Å"a new legal order of international lawÃ¢â¬ for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states.  The Person I Admire Most International law Main articles: Public international law, Conflict of laws, and European Union law Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations system was agreed during World War II International law can refer to three things: public international law, private international law or conflict of laws and the law of supranational organisations. Public international law concerns relationships between sovereign nations. The sources for public international law development are custom, practice and treaties between sovereign nations, such as the Geneva Conventions.Public international law can be formed by international organisations, such as the United Nations (which was established after the failure of the League of Nations to prevent the Second World War), the International Labour Organisation, the World Trade Organisation, or the International Monetary Fund. Public international law has a special status as law because there is no international police forc e, and courts (e. g. the International Court of Justice as the primary UN judicial organ) lack the capacity to penalise disobedience. 22] However, a few bodies, such as the WTO, have effective systems of binding arbitration and dispute resolution backed up by trade sanctions.  Conflict of laws (or Ã¢â¬Å"private international lawÃ¢â¬ in civil law countries) concerns which jurisdiction a legal dispute between private parties should be heard in and which jurisdiction's law should be applied. Today, businesses are increasingly capable of shifting capital and labour supply chains across borders, as well as trading with overseas businesses, making the question of which country has jurisdiction even more pressing.Increasing numbers of businesses opt for commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958.  European Union law is the first and, so far, only example of an internationally accepted legal system other than the UN and the World Trade Organisation. Given the tren d of increasing global economic integration, many regional agreementsÃ¢â¬âespecially the Union of South American NationsÃ¢â¬âare on track to follow the same model.In the EU, sovereign nations have gathered their authority in a system of courts and political institutions. These institutions are allowed the ability to enforce legal norms both against or for member states and citizens in a manner which is not possible through public international law.  As the European Court of Justice said in the 1960s, European Union law constitutes Ã¢â¬Å"a new legal order of international lawÃ¢â¬ for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states. 
Friday, August 16, 2019
PART 2: Writing DR. APJ ABDUL KALAM -the person who inspire me- What does someone do to inspire you? To me, inspiration is the process of instilling faith in someone to motivate him or her to do something. Many people do things simply out of the kindness in their heart, and do not realize they are inspiring others around them. To me, a news paper boy who is became an Indian scientist and also administrator who served as the 11th President of India, inspires me the most. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J.Abdul Kalam, is the most motivater to my study and life. He inspires me to do things by example. For example, in Dr. Kalam life, his father wasn't educated but he wanted Kalam to study. Dr. Kalam would get up at 4 am, bathed and then go for his mathematics class. After his morning class, Kalam along with his cousin Samsuddin went around town distributing the newspaper. As the town had no electricity, kerosene lamps were lit at his home between 7 pm and 9 pm. But because Kalam studied until 11, his mother would save some for him for later use.Dr. Kalam always said to students that to succeed in our mission, we must have single-minded devotion to our goal. We have to dream before our dreams can come true. When the whole universe is friendly to us and conspires only to give the best to those who dream and work. These are the powerful quotes by Dr Abdul Kalam that help his success followed him. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan and Bharat Ratna, and then he became the President of India. He is one of the few presidents who have touched the hearts of so many poor children in the country.Because he also came from a poor background, he knew that the power of education in changing our future. In my conclution, quotes of Dr Abdul Kalam are always make me more stronger to achieve my dreams comes true and I would not be the person I am today without him. PART 1: Planning |Topic |a news paper boy who is became an Indian scientist and also administrator who served as the| | |11th President of India, inspires me the most. | |Topic sentences |Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam usually referred to as Dr.A. P. J. Abdul Kalam, is the | | |most motivater to my study and life. | |Body with supporting details |He inspires me to do things by example. | | |His father wasn't educated but he wanted Kalam to study. | | |After his morning class, Kalam along with his cousin Samsuddin went around town | | |distributing the newspaper. | |As the town had no electricity, kerosene lamps were lit at his home between 7 pm and 9 pm. | | |But because Kalam studied until 11, his mother would save some for him for later use. | | |Dr. Kalam always said to students that to succeed in our mission, we must have | | |single-minded devotion to our goal. We have to dream before our dreams can come true. | |He was awarded the Padma Bhushan and Bharat Ratna, and then he became the President of | | |India. | | |He also came from a poor background, he knew that the power of education in changing our | | |future. | |Concluding sentences |In conclution, quotes of Dr Abdul Kalam are always make me more stronger and I would not be| | |the person I am today without him. REFERENCES 1. http://www. wonderfulinfo. com/winfo/life_history_apj_abdul_kalam. php 2. http://www. caclubindia. com/forum/quotes-by-dr-abdul-kalamÃ¢â¬â104060. asp#. UJOnCpiT9Ic 3. http://changeminds. wordpress. com/ 4. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/A. _P. _J. _Abdul_Kalam To me, my husband Dave inspires me the most. He is a very loving and caring person. He gives me the strength in my heart to do whatever I put my mind to. He inspires me to do things by example. He inspires me most when I see how his generosity makes other people feel, and how good it makes him feel because of their reaction.From that example, it makes me want to do something so I can experience the same feeling. Dave always inspires me to make goals for myself, chase my dreams, and to do things t o help others. He volunteers whenever he can. A few of his favorites are Cub Scouts, Drug Awareness Programs, Children's Hospitals, Supporting our Veterans, Community Highway Clean-up, and Habitat for Society. He is also very dedicated to helping his country. He has been in the United States Navy for almost 20 years as a Senior Chief Builder in the Seabees.He will retire soon, but his desire to help our country and community will continue. It was one rainy evening in particular I will never forget. We were sitting in the living room discussing his plans for a motorcycle run to raise money for the Veterans Hospital in Hampton Virginia. The TV was playing in the background, and our son was sitting at the kitchen table working on his homework. In the middle of our conversation, his cell phone rang. He stepped outside to take the call, and I went to check our son's progress with his homework. When he came back into the house, he did not say a word.He just turned the volume on the TV up, and started to watch the coverage for the upcoming hurricane. He began to explain the phone call he had just received. It was from his boss in the military. He said if the hurricane were going to be as strong as they think it will be, he would have to leave right away to be there for the disaster recovery. This started to make me worry about what was going to happen to the motorcycle run. We had over 200 people already pre-registered, the t-shirts ordered, the food was being prepared, the permits were in hand, and the police escort had already been set up.I knew this was something Dave was passionate about, and it had to go on. Suddenly, on August 29, Hurricane Katrina hit the Gulf coast. There was severe damage mostly in the cities of Mobile, Alabama, Waveland, Biloxi/Gulfport, Mississippi, and New Orleans. At least 1,836 people lost their lives due to the severe storm surge damage. Dave was ready to go as soon as he heard the news, so he could provide help to those who lost every thing. More than 3,000 U. S. Navy Seabees from all over the United States aided in the hurricane Katrina relief efforts.Hurricane Katrina was so devastating; Dave and his crew volunteered to stay longer, and could not make it back in time for the motorcycle run for the veteran's hospital. His passion to help his community, and our country inspired me to take over the motorcycle run. I wanted to make a difference in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives just as Dave would have done. He wanted to make life a little easier not only for our veterans in the hospital, but also the people who lost everything due to the hurricane.After a lot of hard work and dedication, it was a very rewarding feeling knowing I could help that day. The motorcycle run was a huge success, and we were able to present them with a check for over five thousand dollars. Without the inspiration from my husband, and continuing to do things out of the kindness of his heart, I would not have been motivated to do the things I have don e. He continues to inspire me to do things everyday, and I would not be the person I am today without him.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
INTRODUCTION The word rag Ã¢â¬â means torn clothes. Due to some or other reasons, we have cultivated an environment, where some students believe that they are seniors and therefore they have the right to be respected. There is a false sense of hierarchy, particularly in Indian mindset. There are false notions of superiority. It is a fact that this kind of ego or hierarchy is destructive at all levels. A person today wont respect his teacher or his parents, if he/ she is tortured by that Ã¢â¬â so what to talk about ragging. Respect and human dignity is a fundamental right of every person. The false notions of hierarchy and self importance, creates a spirit of ragging Ã¢â¬â where some people force others to respect them and play at their desires. RAGGING IN INSTITUTIONS When a person joins a new institution, the person is already afraid, nervous and disturbed. In such a position, the person needs mental support Ã¢â¬â and this person is vulnerable at this stage Ã¢â¬â because he / she is in a stage of transition. He must get support from teachers and all concerned. I am against the use of senior or junior words Ã¢â¬â in an academic environment, where we wish to promote equality, fraternity Ã¢â¬â every one is equal Ã¢â¬â so this kind of spirit Ã¢â¬â the spirit of junior or senior will kill this equality which is required for true academic ambiance. True academic environment develops, where there is complete fraternity Ã¢â¬â and even teachers and directors treat others as mature human beings and give them due dignity. For cultivating mutual respect, mutual understanding Ã¢â¬â we need an environment Ã¢â¬â where people try to offer space to every person and extend a willing helping hand. True understanding develops out of close interaction and collective efforts in some focused directions. We can create a true group environment by cultivating a goal orientation and by forming groups Ã¢â¬âwhere people join together across different disciplines and different backgrounds. RAGGING TO AVOID FEAR Ragging is a very heinous practice Ã¢â¬â in the name of introduction. Introduction must be there- but it must start from the seniors. The junior shave to get love from seniors Ã¢â¬â then only we will find equality and fraternity. It is like giving love to a new bride in a home Ã¢â¬â where everyone surrounds the new bride and gives her due care Ã¢â¬â so that she feels at home. A new student also needs similar love and care and we can create a truly friendly entombment. The heads of the institutions must take positive initiatives for creating introduction between different students and must form voluntary groups. If the heads of the institutions Ã¢â¬â donÃ¢â¬â¢t care for all these Ã¢â¬â the students create evil practices like ragging Ã¢â¬â therefore truly the heads of the institutions are responsible for not cultivating the right environment of mutual collaboration, trust, and openness among the academic fraternity and for creating an ambiance for proper inductio n of a new student . SHOULD THERE BE RAGGING OR NOT a marginal level of introduction may be there Ã¢â¬â but it should not hurt any personsÃ¢â¬â¢ feelings. It is just for enjoyment it should be light. In a professional institution every person should be able to interact with each other it is possible if they introduce each other if they introduce each other they are able to interact better. If there is no ragging the interaction will be less ,ragging will foster interaction, seniors will be able to help their juniors the students will be able to help each others. It is a positive activity for promoting interaction among students it will create a family environment. But now a days in some institutions, anti-social elements are using ragging as a cheap activity. RAGGING A RIVALRY There are many ways to promote interaction. The word rag means use of force when you are using forcing a person to interact it will not work. Ragging must be completely eliminated from institutions it is destruction of a goodculture. It creates gap between seniors and juniors Ã¢â¬â people want equality and friendly environment Ã¢â¬â ragging only creates levels and gaps. A person will get depressed and frustrated if that person finds a very depressing environment like ragging. Some students donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to college in fear of their seniors. Ragging is completely against the juniors. The seniors force their juniors to do many things in the name of entertainment. When these juniors are able to get united, they start fighting with their seniors and there is rivalry. If we are talking about professional institutions, we should create a helping environment Ã¢â¬â there are many ways the students can interact with each others and help them in their development. If seniors want, th ey can help their juniors in their development Ã¢â¬â without ragging. RAGGING IN THE WRONG PATH Ragging is fear causing. The world is full of risks and fear and we have to get prepared to face the world. We have to face the real world. We have to face these challenges and we have to accept these challenges. We are saying that ragging must be removed Ã¢â¬â but how will you remove fear from the world. Ragging prepares you to face the real world. Introduction is different from ragging how will a junior remember a senior in positive terms if he remembers that he was tortured by the senior. If one want to learn professional manners he can use positive manners and friendly environment. We can tell them in a friendly environment , ragging is not useful for this purpose. It creates mental tensions. CONCLUSION Ragging has completely changed due to ragging there are cases of deaths even and so ragging must change , many institutions have completely banned ragging. AICTE and government have also banned ragging.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
Explain how you use effective communication in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults. Why is this important? 1. 1 In developing positive relationships we use effective communication in several ways. We use it to: Ã¢â¬ ¢help us better understand a situation or person which can help to determine our approach when engaging with them. Ã¢â¬ ¢build trust and respect. If individuals feel comfortable speaking with us and feel they can approach us at any time on any subject, they are more likely to co-operate and look favourably on any suggestions made. Ã¢â¬ ¢show that we care about the welfare and future of an individual and will do our best to aid in their success Ã¢â¬ ¢ensure that all parties are agreed upon the same goal, making sure that everyone is clear about the final aim and how it will be achieved. Ã¢â¬ ¢build and maintain a positive working environment where creativity and learning can flourish. It is important to do this because poor communication can lead to misunderstandings, lack of trust and conflict. Without a positive relationship you are unlikely to gain support and co-operation and find it challenging to achieve a good outcome from any situation. Explain the principles of relationship building with children, young people and adults 1. 2 When trying to develop positive relationships there are several principles to follow. Firstly effective communication is essential. You must be clear in what you say and ensure you have been understood correctly. At the end of a communication you can reiterate your key points and if necessary outline responsibilities and actions. Also be sure to use language appropriate to the person with whom you are communicating. When speaking with young children keep key points to a minimum and ask them to repeat what you have said. Secondly, take time to listen to others and try to understand their point of view. Use active listening techniques to show that you are interested in what they are saying and respond appropriately. Also make sure that, if you tell someone you will get back to them, you do get back to them. This will help engender a sense of trust and respect. It is also essential that you show respect for the person with whom you are communicating. Remember their name and details of how they like to be addressed and issues which are personal to them. Recalling details of their lives adds to the feeling that you are genuinely interested in them and their welfare. When communicating be sure to acknowledge the individual. Accommodate any religious and cultural beliefs and show that you value these differences. Be considerate of the personÃ¢â¬â¢s situation trying to understand and accommodate any issues which may influence their feelings, actions and responses. Finally, remain positive and retain a sense of humour. Laughter is a good way to break the ice and relieve tension in a stressful situation. Explain how different social, professional and cultural contexts may affect relationships and the way people communicate 1. 3 There are several ways in which social, professional and cultural contexts may affect our relationships and the way we communicate. We must remember that communication is not just verbal and context will influence the way we act, what we wear, how we communicate and what we say. In a social setting our actions, language and dress may be less formal. If we have colleagues and parents from school as friends outside of school, then we might perhaps greet them with a hug and a wave. Our language might incorporate slang and jokes and conversation might be more generic and less serious. We might be more casual in our attire and the situation would suggest whether this is acceptable. For example, you would not be expected to attend a party wearing your best suit. The manner in which we communicate socially is also likely to be different from a professional setting. As well as telephone and face to face conversations we might also engage via text message, email and social media sites and we would be unlikely to write a letter to someone we might see daily. Communications might, for example, utilise text speak and jargon and not necessarily demand an immediate response if any at all. In a professional context you would be expected to act, speak and dress more formally. Your actions language and clothing should match the severity of the issue which you will address and show appropriate respect for the location and people with whom you are meeting. If participating in a parent/ teacher meeting at school for example the same people you greeted with a hug the night before would be better greeted with perhaps a handshake to highlight the position you hold in this scenario. Our language would be more formal and depending who was present we might try to eliminate jargon to ensure clarity and minimise misunderstandings. Similarly again our clothing would be more formal to identify the position we hold and show respect for those involved in any meeting. When contacting people professionally the use of social media sites would not be appropriate to discuss any matters relating to school, pupils or staff. Text messages might be appropriate to inform parents/carers of a school social event for example but to arrange a meeting or discuss an important matter it would be more appropriate to speak with a parent/carer or write a letter if the contact needs to be documented. When working with outside agencies email, for ease of use and speed, has become the standard form of communication but again when broaching a sensitive or important issue, a phone call or face to face meeting might be preferred. Emails can easily be misread which can lead to misunderstanding and conflict. When speaking we can use tone of voice to help ensure a point is understood correctly and face to face we can use body language in the same way. The timeframe in which we contact someone or reply to a communication can also affect relationships. When someone has taken the time to contact you they will expect a response to show that you value their contact and it should be made in the same manner or more personally. Responding to a phone call with an email, for example, could be seen as rude and deter future contact. Similarly, delaying a response could suggest that you do not value the input of the individual or consider them or their issue to be important and bring about the same result. Finally, we need to consider the cultural differences of those with whom we interact. Different cultures may also have different standards in terms of behaviour, dress, communication and contact. Actions could be misinterpreted and cause offence leading to the breakdown of a relationship. If you are meeting with someone from a different culture it may be worth doing some research and asking their preferred form of contact etc. to show that you value their beliefs. However, whilst it may be detrimental not to account for cultural differences you could see the same consequences if you assume differences because of background or race when actually there are none. What skills do you need to communicate with children and young people 2. 1 Communication is still a relatively new thing for children and young people and they may not be used to asking questions and holding conversations. One skill required to communicate effectively is giving children and young people opportunities to speak. As adults we are inclined to think that we know what children are thinking and feeling and try to tell them this or fill the gaps in their speech. Whilst we should continue to try and communicate with children as often as possible we should ensure it is a two-way conversation and not a one-way stream of instructions. We should remain patient and allow children time to organise their thoughts and formulate their sentences. When a child is relaxed and at ease they will be more forthcoming. Children may be shy and reluctant to say more than a few words if they feel you are not interested in what they have to say. Using positive body language we can encourage children to speak out. We should come down to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s level, face them and maintain eye contact. Remaining focussed on the child rather than continuing with another task will confirm your interest and appropriate facial expressions will show that you are listening and have understood what they are saying. Active listening is another key skill. Be interested and make appropriate responses whilst the child is speaking to confirm that you are really listening. Add to this by repeating back what the child has said to ensure your understanding is correct and by giving positive comments when they have finished. Asking open questions will extend the conversation giving the child more practice, boost the childÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence so they are encouraged to communicate more and model a real conversation for them to learn from. Finally, we must also ensure that communication is appropriate for the child or young person and be able to adapt the style we use. Depending on the age and ability of the child we may be able to simply converse or might need to incorporate visual support or play into the communication. We should not assume children and young people will not understand but instead make our communication clear, use vocabulary which is appropriate to their age and encourage questioning. Give a detailed explanation of how you adapt communication with children and young people for: 2. 2 aThe age of the child or young person When communicating with younger children you should try choose a setting which is familiar to the child and where they are more confident Ã¢â¬â their favourite area of the classroom for example. Get down to the level of the child perhaps sitting on the carpet and use body language to make them feel more comfortable Ã¢â¬â ensure you are facing the child, smile, nod, turn toward them, keep your arms open and remove any barriers between you. Younger children will require more reassurance and perhaps more physical contact. They may feel more confident holding your hand or sitting close together. Vocabulary should be kept simple and sentences short, broken down into easy steps. The same point may need to be repeated several times in different ways and it is helpful to provide examples based around their own experiences. If a child is very reluctant to communicate you may want to use puppets to speak through, include pictures or props to help them engage or perhaps incorporate your communication into a favourite game. The attention span of younger children is very short and you must also account for this. Monitor the length of time you spend together and include attention switches to maintain their interest: change your method of communication, switch speakers, move location, ask questions etc. Older children and young people will still need to feel comfortable in your company but are more independent and will require less reassurance and physical contact. They are more familiar with the school environment so will find it easier communicate in different settings but will more comfortable in a setting they have used before. Older children often view themselves as grown up and will appreciate being treated accordingly. Positive body language will still be beneficial in encouraging a child to speak but it will no longer be necessary to sit on the floor. Language and vocabulary should be more mature and sentences can be more complex. It may also not be necessary to repeat a point so often unless it is something new and above that personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability level. Examples can be drawn from a variety of sources as their experiences are wider and additional materials should be more sophisticated such as written texts or Ã¢â¬ you tubeÃ¢â¬ clips. Older children are more aware of themselves and can be easily embarrassed. They will benefit from confidence boosting reminders of how well they are progressing and positive re-enforcement. They will, however, withdraw and react negatively if patronised, preferring to be treated with respect and spoken to honestly. With age attention span also increases so it is still necessary to include attention switches to maintain focus but not as frequently. bthe context of the communication We will encounter children in a variety of situations at school and it will be necessary to adapt our communication accordingly. Primarily our contact will be made inside school during a learning activity. In this case we need to remain quite formal, be directive and model the behaviour we require through our own actions. Ground rules should be laid down in clear, concise Instructions and the learning objectives highlighted to ensure all children fully understand what we expect and are trying to achieve from the lesson. There will be other children in the same area working on separate activities so we need to make our lesson interesting to retain the attention of our group but not distract the others. We can do this through tone of voice, choice of vocabulary and supplementary resources but must be wary not to overexcite the group because of the other learners present. If your activity is away from other learners then it may be possible to incorporate physical activity and allow greater expression. Distractions will be plentiful and we will need to encourage and focus our learners through positive re-enforcement and challenges. If appropriate to the task we should encourage discussion through questioning but keep discussion restricted to the subject at hand. In a more social setting, for example the playground, we can be less formal and more relaxed in our approach. This would be reflected in our body language, tone of voice and vocabulary. These times can be used as opportunities to build relationships and get to know the children better. Children can be encouraged to discuss outside interests and we might share our own experiences to help form a bond. Whilst it may be necessary to give little reminders of school rules to avoid bad behaviour it should not be necessary to outline them in full and they can be made in a more playful and conspiratorial manner Ã¢â¬â a helpful friend rather than a figure of authority. Although conversation might be more light hearted we must still remember to maintain the relationship of teacher and pupil. A school trip, however, is a more social event, but still a learning activity and the degree of formality should remain on a similar level to the classroom. The formality of the pupil teacher relationship should remain so the children understand that you Ã¢â¬Å"are in chargeÃ¢â¬ . Children will need to be reminded often of their objectives but communication might be more light hearted and children allowed to speak more freely, discussing outside interests highlighted by the current situation. Outside the school environment they will be excited and more forgetful of their code of conduct. It will not always be possible to speak with the whole group when on a trip so we should communicate through our own behaviour, modelling what we expect from the children: remaining focussed, respectful, and responsible.