Friday, May 31, 2019

The Truth To A Ballad :: essays research papers

The Truth to a BalladAt her Redeemers tin shell stand, And shell be cured of woe, And He her bloodied hands will wash, And shell be white as snow (15). This quote concludes the beautifully written lay located in the first chapter of Margaret Atwoods Alias boon. By summarizing the events leading up to the murders, the murders themselves, and the ensuing trial, the poem presents the reader with what appears to be a foreshadowing of things to come. However, though the ballad reflects many an(prenominal) of the novels events, there are several differences which contradict goodwills narration.The poetic verse and the story told by decorate contain numerous similarities. As the ballad states at the beginning, Grace says she was sixteen years old when the murders at the house of Thomas Kinnear occurred jam McDermott worked as a stable hand, and Grace was the serving maid. Also alike is the poems description of Nancy as a no well-born lady.who goes in satin and silk, The finest ever s een (11). When first meeting Nancy, Grace wonders why a housekeeper would be wanting a dress like that, (200) immediately noticing Nancy is dressed rather well considering her occupation. When the murders take place in the novel, James strikes Nancy on the head with an axe and throws her into the cellar where she eventually died with an unborn baby in her womb. This event was depicted in the poem, as was the scene where James and Grace steal valuables from Mr. Kinnears house and fled across the lake to the Lewiston Hotel in the United States. As the ballad progresses, the two are later arrested at which point Grace states she does not remember seeing the murders take place. Also similar, is James declaration of Grace being the one who lead him on, and if not for her the murders would have never happened. When the poem explains how Jamie Walsh marked Grace a murderer at the trial, yet she was given a life sentence while James was hung and dissected at the University, Graces tale is reflected perfectly. The ballad concludes with Grace receiving forgiveness and entering a life of paradise. This appears apparent at the end of the novel as Grace is pardoned, and then fulfills her orchard apple tree skin prophecy of marrying a man with a first name beginning with J. Though the above events are comparable to the story Grace tells, the ballad contains several discrepancies as well.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Italian Unification :: Italy History

Italian unification1) There were a act of reasons as to the fact that Italian unification seemed so far away in the early 1850s, and reasons why nobody felt that Italy as one state would ever be possible. There had been a number of attempted uprisings between 1948 and 49, however all of these had been unsuccessful. The area that is now Italy was still separate parts, each part with their own culture and traditions. Around ninety portion of the population were uneducated and many did not even know the term Italy, many of these people did not have any concerns over who ruled them, and scarcely wished to be ruled well. Austria was still very much the dominant power in Italy, and a dominant power in Europe, at the time it seemed undoable that they could ever be removed from Italy.2) Cavour saw Mazzinis ideas as negative, and idealistic, Cavour wanted Piedmontease expansion while Mazzini and his followers wanted a united Italy. Cavour detested Mazzini because of his ultra views, th e opposite to Cavours middle of the road politics. As well as this Mazzinis practical record had been one of complete failure, and many young revolutionaries died to no effect. Cavour believed that Mazzini was in fact a help to his cause, and so looked for support from different areas.4) At Plombieres an agreement was signed in which the French under Napoleon the tercet agreed to help Piedmont eject the Austrians from states in the northern part of Italy, the meeting was vital because Cavour knew that he had no chance of removing the Austrians without outside support, which France agreed to give at the meeting at Plombieres. However they agreed only to do this on the condition that Austria were seen as the aggressors. To ensure that this was the case Cavour had troops mobilise inside piedmont which whence resulted in Austria attacking, this gave France the excuse they needed to attack Austria and take many of the northern states. However fear of intervention by the Germanic stat es and fear of troubles at menage lead Napoleon to him pulling out and not fulfilling the agreements made at Plombieres, and therefore not gaining niece and Savoy. When Cavour wished to continue the battle against the Austrians he was prevented from doing so by superscript Emanuel, and consequently resigned. 6) Cavour was a very skilled politician who wished Piedmont to be seen as a force in Europe, and to achieve this he did a number of things, firstly he involved himself in the Crimean war in which both Britain and France had a great interest in.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

things Fall Apart Essay -- essays research papers

CHAPTER 10 A truly dramatic public ceremony is described in detail that involves meting out justice. On the village commons ppl gather and the rest of the village is behind them. Nine stools are placed for the egwugwu to sit. Egwugwu represent the spirits of their ancestors and are respected members of the community who can dispense justice in trials. Women stood on the edges of the circle. A gong is loudly blasted and the guttural voice of the egwugwu is heard. When he makes his appearance, it is very dramatic as he wears a fearful looking pretend and pretends to scare the women. With him , nine some other masked men emerge. Okonkwos wives notice that one of the egwugwu walks with a springy step such as Okonkwo does. They also notice he is absent from where the elders sit. The leader of the egwugwu speaks some words. The hearing then begins. It involves a man named Uzowulu whose wife was taken away by him by her family. He wishes that either she return or they pay him his bri de-price. The womens brother argues that she has been rescued because she is beaten every day and that she leave alone return on the promise that he never hit her again. After the discussion the leader returns with a verdict. He tells Uzowulu to bring wine to his wifes family and beg his wife to return to him. He also expresses disgust at Uzowulus cowardice in beating women and askes him to accept his brother-in-laws offer. The egwugwu and their system of justice are similar to Western societys whimsey of a fair public trial. The men who conduct the hearings are the senior members of the society, and have political as well as economic power, but they mask themselves to hide their identity, so that a fair judgment can be given. Here each party is given a chance to state their scale and then the egwugwu leave to debate a verdict as well as a punishment or remuneration. The dismissive attitude one of the elders shows for a trial of this kind reveals the lack of power and respect tha t women had in this society. Not only does the womens brother speak for her, but she has no say in the verdict handed to her husband. Whether or not she wants to return is overlooked by the larger economic reason for her return. Her husbands hand is slapped for being so violent but other than that he is not punished for his crime, simply finedCHAPTER 11 One night, Ezinma and her mother are sitting in... ...anlyfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yui o sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdfsdihsdlhsdodsdjohndjsjdkl hd shduiosy yuio sduisui sdure i entually will

The British Empire Essay -- British History, Industrialization, Politi

The British Empire is the largest empire ever seen on the face of this planet. The empire was divided into two. The first cancel of the empire revolved around the British colonies in America that were popularly known as the thirteen colonies. These gained independence from Britain in 1783. The second part of the empire, which veritable from the first empire, came later. It started during the Napoleonic wars and survived throughout the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. In fact, the British withdrew from its last colony, Hong Kong, in 1997 indeed the empire lasted for a long time. It developed from India and spun to regions of Africa and Australia. The influence and the power of the empire spun around the valet shaping it in different ways. This influence is still evident in legion(predicate) places that fell under its control (Ferguson, 2004). To many people the world is the way it is due to the effects of the British Empire. Certainly, this empire just like other legion(predicate) empires before it and after it had triumphs and humiliations however, the fact that this empire had numerous good effects cannot be overemphasized. The empire impacted autocraticly on Britain and the colonies. The first notable positive effect of the empire is industrialization. The British having been ahead in industrial evolution helped spread technology to new places around the world. Particularly, the British Empire was responsible for the ontogeny of early industries in their colonies (Balasubramanyam & Wei, 79). They built industries in the colonies such as sugar factories, cotton factories and tobacco industries. Certainly, this was a new development in these colonies that later guide to the colonies mechanizing their cottage industri... ...ver, as a result of the demands of abolitionists, the British parliament enacted laws such as the Slave Trade Act 1807, which resulted in abolishing trade. Certainly, this was a remarkable component part to the respect of human rights. Clearly, the vast empire also left a vast influence. The numerous positive affects are still evident today in most of the former colonies. Indeed, as most people believed the sun never sets on the British Empire. Most people believe that the current state of the world is a product of the empire. Numerous things including educational systems, farming, judicial, governance systems and others around the world are a product of the empire. The empire left a permanent plebeian relationship among former colonies, which still enjoy trade and diplomatic ties. It is, therefore, beyond doubt that the empire had numerous positive effects.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Phony and Nice Worlds in Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut :: Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut Essays

Phony and Nice Worlds in Uncle Wiggly in computed axial tomography Salinger expresses his view of the existence through his ingestion of phony and twee worlds. Salinger uses the phony and priggish worlds to express his pessimistic view of the world. Although phony and nice worlds exist in many of Salingers stories, Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut is perhaps the best story to illustrate the difference between phony and nice worlds. Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut is one of the few stories which offers views of both phony and nice worlds in relatively few pages. The action of Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut takes place in the living room of the protagonist, Eloise. Eloise is reminiscing about her past with her suspensor Mary Jane. Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut is divided into three scenes. In the first scene, we see Eloise as she is in the second, we learn what she has been in the past in the third, we witness her sudden recognition of what has happened to her. The contrasting worlds are epi tomized in the title of the story. Uncle Wiggly is a reference to childrens stories about a whimsical rabbit. Connecticut is the chosen gathering place of the phony Madison Avenue exurbanites (French 22). The protagonist of Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut, Eloise, has experienced both the phony and the nice worlds. The phony world is the world into which we have the best view because Eloise is essentially living in a phony world. Eloise is stranded in a loveless marriage and uses alcoholic beverage to drink away her sorrows. Eloises husband, Lew, is one of the Madison Avenue exurbanites and is a stark contrast to Eloises first husband. Eloise is very critical of Lew and everything that he does. The phoniness of Connecticut has transformed Eloise from the nice woman she was to the cruel, pessimistic woman she is now. Eloise realizes how far she has fallen near the end of the story. Eloise has scolded her daughter and chastised the maid when she reaches her epiphany. Eloise asks her frie nd I was a nice girl, wasnt I (Nine Stories 38). The nice world is now only a distant memory to Eloise. Eloise reflects happily about her time with her first husband, Walt. Walt was a GI, one of the Glass twins, and far from the swollen-headed Madison Avenue businessman (French 22). Eloise remarks that Walt was the only man who could make her laugh.

Phony and Nice Worlds in Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut :: Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut Essays

Phony and Nice Worlds in Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut Salinger expresses his view of the world through his use of bogus and nice worlds. Salinger uses the simulated and nice worlds to express his pessimistic view of the world. Although phony and nice worlds exist in many of Salingers stories, Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut is perhaps the take up invention to illustrate the difference between phony and nice worlds. Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut is champion of the few stories which offers views of both phony and nice worlds in comparatively few pages. The action of Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut takes place in the living room of the protagonist, Eloise. Eloise is reminiscing about her past with her friend Mary Jane. Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut is divided into three scenes. In the first scene, we see Eloise as she is in the second, we learn what she has been in the past in the third, we witness her sudden designation of what has happened to her. The contrasting worlds are epitomized in th e title of the story. Uncle Wiggly is a reference to childrens stories about a whimsical rabbit. Connecticut is the chosen gathering place of the phony Madison Avenue exurbanites (French 22). The protagonist of Uncle Wiggly in Connecticut, Eloise, has experienced both the phony and the nice worlds. The phony world is the world into which we have the best view because Eloise is essentially living in a phony world. Eloise is stranded in a loveless marriage and uses alcohol to drink away her sorrows. Eloises husband, Lew, is one of the Madison Avenue exurbanites and is a stark contrast to Eloises first husband. Eloise is very critical of Lew and everything that he does. The phoniness of Connecticut has transformed Eloise from the nice womanhood she was to the cruel, pessimistic woman she is now. Eloise realizes how far she has fallen near the end of the story. Eloise has scolded her daughter and chastised the maid when she reaches her epiphany. Eloise asks her friend I was a nice girl , wasnt I (Nine Stories 38). The nice world is now exclusively a distant memory to Eloise. Eloise reflects happily about her time with her first husband, Walt. Walt was a GI, one of the Glass twins, and far from the egotistical Madison Avenue man of affairs (French 22). Eloise remarks that Walt was the only man who could make her laugh.

Monday, May 27, 2019

How Media Actually Affects the Culture of the Human Society Today Essay

IntroductionThe contemporary problem of a nine which has a democratic and liberal political setting alongside a free mart economic system or any society which gears towards such characterizations re mains to be one that involves what contemporary political ventureers and scholars refer to as the nonion of the ingroup of values. Isaiah Berlin, for instance, considers what he called values pluralism as an inevit sufficient consequence of the processes of democratization and liberalization. For the sake of clarity, it is but proper to lay d avouch at the onset, what the task of this stem is.This papers task remains two-fold first it seeks to explicate Thomas stamps views in his essay entitled, Why Johnny Cant dissent from the book, Commodify Your Dissent, and second, it aims to give substantive criticisms to Franks views and comment on how media and advertising squander caused business culture and counterculture to become, essentially, one and the same primarily answering the h esitancy in what sense may they be considered as one and the same?Relating the Thoughts of Frank with the Theories of SelznickUnderstanding the business industries today, it should occur to ein truthone that the said field of concern very notes the impact of business upon the culture of the society today. Good manners involve showing consideration for the feelings of others, according them respect, treating them as we would standardized for them to treat us. some(prenominal) an(prenominal) have noted, however, that manners themselves have undergone a breakdown. Indeed, courtesy becomes one of the most wanted character among people which proves that the society lacks so much manners an is still wanting(p) some as the long eon pass by. Certainly the idea of being polite have been used by many soulfulnessalities in the military man familiarity today to conceal the real score behind politics and its connection with selfishness, hence making the society more prone to demands of fine manner which nevertheless people in authority fail to show.Children as young as five geezerhood of age atomic number 18 increasingly belligerent, disrespectful of other childrens property, lacking in respect for adults, and using obscene language. Most teachers surveyed feel that p arents are spoiling their children and that this is the root cause of the increase in unsocial behavior. At one refer, it could be said that the issue of dis piddle away of fine manners starts decaying within the four walls of the homes where one-on-one characters are developed within a person. Many factors concerning a childs development have been causing social chaos as the children of certain times grow to take all over the society. As result the characters once set in a child to be right and acceptable causes problems to the society as they grow older.True, in many cases, the homes which are supposed to be the modeling clay of a persons being becomes highly incapable of doing its part in making a rectify society for the future. Instead, divorces and other family failures constitute in the society today drives the very idea of the mistaken identity of the wrong to become accepted in the human fellowship. The used to be fine atmosphere of parks and playgrounds is now replaced with the view of groups of children ages nine to thirteen gathered in gangs and not by playmates. Even the childrens views of fun have now changed to violence and authority.Certainly, world reports are mostly making much clear points on showing that the worlds moralistic belief and application is already falling off from the supposed needed application for the social development and peace to be highly implemented. Regarding these issues of moral-lack, Philip Selznick has produced a scripted repot on the needs of having moral standards back in the human society today. In the paragraphs to follow, the beliefs of the said author regarding the said issue shall be tackled and discussed for immi nent evaluation.Sociology and the Perfect Society The constitute human condition is dealing with so much problems and issues involving human morality. The values of moral, which are obviously lacking on the present human society is quite an obvious dilemma in the present system of things in the human community. Hence, it is necessary for the present human generation to severalize the need of bringing back ethical motive in the society to be able to save the present generation from perishing in a moral basis. match to Selznick, Morality is do for humans and not humans for morality (Selznick, 12), this room that morality is a provision for the human generation and not a responsibility. In this regard, it is authorized for all humans that everyone recognizes the value of ethical motive at all times. However, this truth has never been totally effective with the human generations that passed the world history. In many points of history, the human civilization has posted so much viol ence and disrespect for life. This is the exact opposite of what is morally accepted in the society. In this manner, it is indeed a factor of consideration that morals are overly affected buy the different organizations that humans form in the society. Indeed, it is true, that by the existence of an influential environment, morals get so twisted and are olibanum mixed up with immoral beliefs.As Selznick says when it comes to bureaucracies, whatever their dysfunctions, hold open the possibility of overcoming local obligations in favor of more universalistic claims (Selznick, 14). In this regard, it could be noticed that Selznick strongly points out that as an individual develops, the society goes with the development as well. However, since the individual universe of todays society seems to develop to a more negatively enhanced improvement, the society too becomes more negatively rooted as the years track down to pass.The Elements of a Perfect Community According to Selznick, the real definition behind a society that is perfectly designed for living is based upon morals. He adds in his written work that definitions in social theory should be weak, inclusive and relatively uncontroversial, in this way, morals are preserved and the open by humans themselves do not intercept in the implication of what is morally accepted in the human community. He also adds that to be able to attain a perfectly created society, there are seven essential elements that should be considered. The seven elements are as followsHistoricityThis defines the strong foundation of any community based upon the past of a certain group of society. The foundation of morals, which are already accepted in the said society, would be the basis of what is morally right.However, since time changes, morals too either develop or in some ways decrease in its strength through the test of time.IdentityA society is indeed known through its identity of moral difference against other social groups. The wa y they are accepting morals usually differs from how others tend to accept morality as a part of their daily living. In this regard, the different societies are considered different form each one because of their own carried identity. interdependencyIt is very main(prenominal) that everyone accept the moral standards set up for their own community. This way the social standards of morality could be considered highly practical and effective for everyone. This means that everybody within a society has mutual understanding and acceptance of what is considered righteous.PluralityThe majority that accepts the moral values that are standardized for social reference is very important. The more there are who accepts the values to be morally righteous, the more effective the said principles are for everyone.AutonomyEverybody is bound to do what is right they are bound to do what is accordingly acceptable with the set principles of morals within the society they are living in. However, it sh ould still be recognized that every person has their own will, their own capability of deciding. This means that to be able to do what is right, a person must also consult his own thoughts and beliefs regarding what should be considered moral, basing from their own individual foundation of knowing what is right and wrong.ParticipationAs earlier said, participation of the majority with regards to the acceptance of moral principles in the entire population of the society is an important factor of making or creating a perfect society.IntegrationBeing able to integrate with the acceptable moral principles of the society is indeed an important part of making a completely peace-lovingly interconnected society. Certainly, this means that being socially integrated within the community through moral principles is a basis of a perfect community.(Source Selznick, Philip. (1994). The Moral Commonwealth companionable Theory and the Promise of Community (Centennial Books). University of Califor nia Press Reprint edition.) These factors of a community makes it practical for the entire population to realizetheir worth in the society. Being able to fully grasp the importance of being a part of the developments in a community indeed makes a persons view of life and worth of living a more improved factor of his life. It is evident that Selznick wants to point out the importance of ones satisfaction with his life and his worth to the society. This moves an individual to fully grasp the importance of his presence and the worth of his life to others, thus making a positive move to be able to do so, helps that person to become more righteous and positively inclined when it comes to the display of his manners. As an overall view, Selznicks theory with regards to a perfect society is indeed an epitome of social utopia derived from individual developments. The fact that as the basic sector of the community, the individuals growth determines the societys growth as well, Selznick point s out that to have a perfect community, a person must not alone realize his worth as an individual but as a part of a big society which needs his presence to grow in becoming more developed and socially mannered. Being a member of a community leaves a person certain responsibilities of being a dogging contributor towards the good of every one knobbed within the society as well. Constant observance of the moral values in the society is an important factor of creating a perfect kind of community, which makes it more livable for most of the population in the society. For these moments, it is important to reconsider morals to bring back the peaceful situations of a utopian model of a society. Although the world today has a hard time implementing the social principles of what is morally acceptable, the theories and elements of a perfect community as mentioned by Selznick is still indeed an effective way of implementing peace in a certain society and thus if implemented, a society born e to peace and certification is not far from being developed. However hard to apply the changes may be, it could still be expected that with ample effort, the aims of a perfect community could be achieved.These views of the said theorist has been further enhanced and introduced for social understanding. Likely, the understanding of such balance that makes a clear connection between media and popular culture is the main feature of Thomas Franks views. Primarily, the focus of the discussion shall be centered upon the understanding of media and its implications with the social culture that is obviously one of the essential factors of a utopian society.Understanding Thomas Franks ViewsIn this regard, with the aim of pursuing the understanding upon the views of Thomas Frank, the discussion in this paper shall then be stressed on the direct effects of the assumptions of the said expert with regards media and human culture. Adorno and Horkheimer, for instance, view commercialism, the weap on of capitalism in and through which it is possible to transform a society into a mediocre herd which prefers popular cultures logic of style and false notions of values such as indistinguishability over more pure ex ironions of truth, as the culprit for the erosion not nevertheless of societal values but also of culture. As they see it, commercialism made possible the existence of the deceived masses (133).The deception of the masses is a phenomenon that is worth the time to evaluate. How is this phenomenon possible? It is at this point that media and advertising steps into the scene. In intelligent Philosophy, fundamental rights are those rights that are inalienable to human persons. An example of this kind of right is the right of free speech. The states credit rating that free speech is a fundamental right that ought to be granted to individuals or citizens of a free democracy has crucial implications on the current problems of any state claiming to be democratic.For one, free speech, by virtue of being a fundamental right, paves the way for differing ideas, worldviews and values. In a liberal and democratic political setting, this is actually healthy. Ideally, it ensures that decisions are arrived at through proper deliberation. By proper deliberation, we refer to different ideas being examined critically through rational discourse.However, there had been considerably significant drawbacks to the recognition of free speech as a fundamental right and these drawbacks involve among many other things the core notions of social obligation and social responsibility that the press or the media ought to be mindful of in terms of proliferating false notions and values through the mechanism of advertising.Naturally, societies which adhere to the tenets of liberalism and democracy will be flooded by too many ideas, worldviews and values. This is an accurate characterization of current liberal and democratic societies. Capitalism, in itself, has a commercial me chanism which Barthes calls censorship by repletion (185). commerce thus, produces confusion and perhaps, intellectual anarchy, by flooding too many false notions as exemplified in the slogans that capitalists use to market their products. In a certain sense, the put up of commercialism endangers the very fabric of society societys cultural, historical and intellectual heritage.Eventually, marketing and advertising were able to replace political discourse. People, oftentimes quickly accept the truthfulness of advertisements. They rarely take the time to think for themselves the truthfulness of slogans and advertisements on the television and the Internet. Such a setting of course, poses serious threats not only on the individual but more importantly, to the whole of society. We seem to forget that we have an important epistemic obligation, that is, not to accept the truth of a belief or a statement unless we have sufficient evidence for it.Undeniably, popular culture affects how the current generation thinks and reasons. To a certain extent, popular culture predisposes and moulds our children to endure and more importantly, to think in such and such ways. Culture, being a way of life, is a social phenomenon it is the society which creates culture. It is the society which creates certain patterns of living, as argued by some social theorists. The idea is that it is ultimately, the people who draft their culture and their history. This idea is however, threatened by commercialism and capitalism. Vein Lasn adds up to this idea Culture isnt created from the bottom up by the people anymore its fed to us top-down by corporations (189). What Van Lasn is pointing out is the fact that the market is too powerful a force that dictates culture.In Franks view, the corporate world feeds on the masses desire to individuality. The capitalists exploit this desire to be different, to be unique, or to stand out by linking the notion of individuality with a certain product t hat they sell on the market. The commercial mechanism of capitalism is, as stated earlier in the discussion, is the media through advertising. Businesses make extensive use of media and advertising to get the attention of the consumers.Capitalism, through media and advertising commodifies values such as individuality. By linking the false notion of individuality to a certain commodity, consumers think that they are unique, that they are different. A deeper analysis however reveals that the aforementioned claim to individuality is nothing but an illusion a figment of the mind manufactured and institutionalized by capitalists. It is not only the case that it is manufactured and institutionalized it is also sold to the consumers. Frank offers a metaphor The race track, the plane on which all individuals race for stardom, is run by those who create and instill conformity. The harder one tries to rebel, the deeper they play into the new consumer hip world, thus defeating their original g oal entirely.At this point, it would be discussed how media and advertising marketed the idea of rebellion and how the subversive offspring counterculture became, in itself, an evidence not of individuality but of conformity. The quoted statement above from the last paragraph of Franks essay raises considerably significant issues that need to be dealt with accordingly. As Frank sees it, the race for individuality is a race that can never be won.The problem, as he sees it, is the fact that the race track or the contend field is in itself, owned by those who create and instill conformity the capitalists. In addition to this, the aforementioned race cannot be won simply because it is the capitalist who dictates the rules. As a matter of fact, they do so because they are the ones who create the rules. So, following Franks reasoning in his metaphor, it is indeed the case that no matter how one tries to rebel, one inevitably gets caught up, entangled with the webs of commercialism and capitalism.The goal to be non-conformists is in vain. Why is this so? As Frank sees it, the current youth counterculture and its attempt to rebel involves a contradiction at its very core. Frank argues that consumerism is no interminable about conforming but about difference (113). How did this slide by? In the preceding discussions, consumerism is associated with conformity but why is it that Frank now claims that it is about difference? For him, the answer is simple. The youth counterculture rebels through material means like fashion and clothing or cars.The idea of individuality, the idea of being unique or different is limited to the shallow definition that the youth appropriates for itself. Consumerism is no longer about conforming but about difference, as Frank claims, since individuals are desperately trying not to conform but by trying not to conform, they end up conforming. Indeed, conforming and not-conforming becomes one and the same since they all play by the rules of the game and the rules of the game as stated earlier, are created and thereby, controlled by the capitalists.Frank also makes mention of how the television makes significant contributions to the deception of the masses. It makes them believe that they are in control of themselves and their lives. On a superficial level, one may think that one is free in choosing the kind of television shows that he or she may choose according to the dictates of his or her will. The problem is however, much more colonial and to think in the way described above is an oversimplification of the problem. It simply misses the point, so to speak. For even the shows on the television are dictated by the hysteria, by what is considered hip during a particular point in time. As Frank states hip is their official ideology (121).Conclusion Certainly, manners have already become a lesser element that is concentrated upon by the society today. Likely, the aim of being industrially known throughout the world ha s made the present society lesser concerned about morals, for as long as they are able to persuade the society to take consideration in fully grown attention to their product offerings no matter what it takes.Confidently, many people are able to live their lives even though they are considering less focus upon the morals that they are implying upon in the growth of the entire society. In this manner, they are then having a hard time relating the present situation of the society with the idealism of a modern social utopia as per suggested by Selznick. Obviously, Thomas Frank actually explains that this particular factor in the society has already been lost by the human generation as they began embracing the trends of industrialization thus jumping into the band wagon of popular culture and modern commercialism along the way. Obviously, as the years has passed the human generations that are existing at present, the idealism of a modern social utopia has been lost to the aims of gaini ng much profit for a more economically forward society. Understandably, the measure of the possibility of making a more socially moral community of humans in the world today becomes more and more involved with the influential factors that hold the key towards the believed progression that has been longed for by the human society. Through the use of media and advertising, the morals of the humanity actually begins to fade as it embraces the effects of globalization that also consequently subject major moral rules to jeopardy for the sake of continuing the advancements of the society that is highly wanted by the entire human generation today.ReferencesAdorno and Horkheimer. The Dialectic of the Enlightenment. Herder and Herder, c. 1972.Barthes, R. Image, Music, Text. Hill, c. 1977.Frank, Thomas. Why Johnny Cant Dissent. Commodify Your Dissent Salvos from The Baffler. W. W. Norton & Company 1st ed., c. 1997.The Conquest of Cool Business Culture, Counterculture, and the Rise of Hip Con sumerism. University of sugar Press, c. 1997.Lasn, K. Culture Jam The Uncooling of America. Eagle Brook, c. 1999.Levinson, Sanford. Our Undemocratic Constitution Where the Constitution Goes Wrong And How We the People Can Correct It. Oxford University Press, c. 2006.Sunstein, Cass. Why Societies Need Dissent. Harvard University Press, c. 2003.Selznick, Philip. (1994). The Moral Commonwealth Social Theory and the Promise of Community (Centennial Books). University of California Press Reprint edition.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Eating Breakfast in Relation to Classroom Behavior Essay

Abstract eat is said to be the most important meal of the day because it is how your body cope with the eight hours of fast during your sleep it overly boost our energy to do your task the entire day and a frank meal in the morning freighter also help oneself to squ atomic number 18 up your blood sugar levels through lunch time, which plays a vital role in your mood. This study impart succeed the explanation on the importance of polish off breakfast for the sophomore psychology students. We provided survey for the students to gather data on who are alimentation breakfast in the morning and those who do not eat breakfast onward school.Our survey included questions that willing identify the academic performance and participation of students before lunch break. In gathering data, the method that we apply in this research is cluster sampling in which the entire population is divided into groups. All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. There ar e 31 Sophomore psychological science Students of 2A, 32 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2B and 36 sophomore psychology Students of 2C.Those who ate breakfast have more energy, do go in school, and eat healthier throughout the day than those who do not eat breakfast before going to school tend to feel anxious, has petty(a) attention span and poor classroom participation. We can say that eating breakfast has an implication students classroom behavior withouteating breakfast, heap can get irritable, restless, and tired. Keywords breakfast, behaviour, classroom, students, participation Introduction In this study we aim to mould the implication of a full meal breakfast to a students emotional and behavioral problems.Let us define the importance of breakfast. A healthy breakfast refuels our body and helps us function at our peak. Research shows that eating a healthy breakfast improves attention, concentration, academic achievement and physical energy. In Maslows Hierarchy of get ho ld ofs, physiological need is the most basic and vital for survival. This includes the need for food, water, air and sleep. Maslow believes that these needs are the most basic instinctive need in order for one to perform his/her daily activities. In line with this system is the theory of John B.Watson, a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. check overing occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shapes our behaviors and in intercourse to VARKs learning theory or Flemings model learners are identified by whether they have a preference for optical learning (pictures, movies, diagrams), auditory learning (music, discussion, lectures), reading and writing (making lists, reading textbooks, taking notes), or kinesthetic learning (movement, experiments, hands-on activities).After gathering all the disciplines that the researchers need they will then come up wi th a survey which will be given to the sophomore psychology students for tabulation. The result will be the basis on the significance of having a full meal breakfast on a students behavior and emotions. Materials and Method The ingest Breakfast to Classroom Survey Questionnaires was used in this research. The testing packages that contain the survey were also distributed. The questionnaire consisted of two parts.Part A consisted of questions 1-3 regarding whether individuals eat breakfast or not and if they do, and how practically they eat and what does it consist of you will see the number 5 question. The part B contained 6 questions asking the student to rate their behavior in classroom using the scale of (1-5) as 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest. Some questions had to do with attention and alertness in class, mood in class, participation, and concentration, test-taking in class. Method was used in this research is cluster sampling in which the entire population is divided i nto groups.All observations in the selected clusters are included in the sample. There are 31 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2A, 32 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2B and 36 Sophomore Psychology Students of 2C. Upon arrival at the testing classroom the researcher asked for the professor if they can conduct a survey. Once the professor let the researcher conduct a survey the participants were then give a survey test. Then researcher will simply told students to read each set of instructions for each section of the survey, then researcher instructed them to begin unless the had promote questions.Once the students are finish, the survey packages were collected from the participants. The participants were also thanked and the professor for taking a time for the study. Results and Discussion The results showed that there was a significant difference of eating breakfast in relation to the classroom behavior of students who ate breakfast than those students who do not have eaten their morning meal. Table 1 sexuality of the Respondents Gender Male Percentage Female Percentage Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 6 8 8 27. 27% 36. 36% 36. 36% 24 25 28 31. 17%32. 47% 36. 36% Total 22 77.The sophomore psychology male student has a quantity of 22 and for the female is 77 in which there a more female sophomore psychology students than male students in sophomore psychology. Table 2 Living Condition of Sophomore Psychology Students Living Condition Dorm Parents House Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 5 3 8 27 28 28 Total 16 83 In impairment in their living condition most of all sophomore psychology students live with their parents raise with a nitty-gritty of 83 and the some different students live in a dorm with total of 16. Table 3Total and Average of Eat Breakfast and Do Not Eat Breakfast Respondents Yes Percentage No Percentage Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 23 25 28 30. 26% 32. 89% 36. 84% 8 7 8 34. 78% 30. 43% 34. 78% Total 76 23 Average 0. 76 0. 23 Base on the table above most s ophomore psychology students eat breakfast with a total of 76 and a total average of 0. 76 and those that do not eat has a total of 23 with a total average of 0. 23. Table 4 Parents Providing Healthy Breakfast in Family Respondents Yes Percentage No Percentage Psych 2A Psych 2B Psych 2C 26 26 33 30. 59%.30. 59% 38. 82% 5 6 3 35. 71% 42. 86% 21. 43% Total 85 14 Base on the table above most parents provide and healthy breakfast in the family with a result of 85 yes and other parents did not provide or being not with parents house that live in dorm with a result of 14. Table 5 Average Behavior of Respondents in the Classroom with Breakfast 1 2 3 4 5 1. How alert do you feel in your class before lunch? 8 29 39 22 1 2. How often do you participate in your classes before lunch? 7 31 43 17 1 3. How is your attention span in class before lunch? 4 33 41 20 1 4.How hard do you find it to concentrate in morning class? 13 72 12 2 0 5. How is your mood in morning class? 7 22 57 12 1 6. During te sts, how nervous do you draw in morning class? 22 39 27 10 1 Total Average 0. 81 2. 28 2. 21 0. 83 0. 05 The total average of scale 1-5 to the table 5 which has a breakfast of 1. 30 as the above is the higher(prenominal) and no breakfast of 1. 30 below which is lower. That in scale 1-3 is significant that sophomore students eat breakfast have more alertness, participation, attention span, concentration, mood, and test-taking with a result of 1 which is 0.81, 2 is 2. 28 then 3 is 2. 21 than those who do not eat breakfast in scale of 4 which is 0. 83 and 5 is 0. 05. Eating breakfast is the important to our lifestyle as a student. The findings that most of all sophomore students live with parents house and the other on a dorm. Eating breakfast has a relation to the behavior of students in a class. A study conducted by Harvard researchers found that students who ate breakfast were significantly more attentive in the classroom, earned higher grades in math, and had significantly fewer b ehavioral and emotional problems.In a study examined the breakfast eating habits of 1,259 college students over an eleven year period to determine if eating breakfast had an impact upon their grade on a General Biology exam. The study determined that there was a significant difference in the performance on the exam with a higher percent of the participants, who had eaten breakfast passing the exam. The study found that only 65. 6 percent of the students participating in the study had eaten breakfast. This finding supports the results of several other studies that people of college age show an increase in the percent skipping breakfast over individual of a younger age.(Kleinman. 1998) This study contributes to the body knowledge of health and school psychology. Every bit of the data that gain will helps further our understanding of the influence of breakfast. The more study collected through research, the more specific and representative the results. In future, there will probably be much more detailed knowledge of this topic. Researchers will hopefully go further to test whether eating breakfast can have even more of a relation to behavior on people live besides just in school performance. (Phillips. 2005) Conclusion.Although this study is not yet establish it may suggest a trend in colleges in general. In an unreferenced studies have provided sample evidence that school students behavior and performance levels are affected by eating breakfast. Still other research has investigated the level of concentration in class is affecting performance of college students. The implication of this study is that eating breakfast is important to students that are learning in everyday to achieve a high score in academic purposes and have a healthy living. Acknowledgement The success of this study required the help of various individuals.The researchers would like to give our gratitude to the following people for their help and support. Without them, the researchers might not meet their objectives in doing this study. To our parents, for freehanded the support and encouragement to pursue our study. For giving us love and patience. To our classmates Angelica Rentero and Grace Anne Salvio, for giving us access to thepsychologysophomore students of Centro Escolar University Makati. To our dearest professor Mrs. Angelina Villanueva, for helping us to have a good and better title for our work and for guiding us always.To our friends students, for giving their little time to help us for our survey. And lastly, to all the people who helped and contributed great ideas and advices, especially classmates and tightfitting friends for without them, this study would not be possible. Recommendation Eating breakfast can affect the behavior and performance of students in morning class. The critique, suggestions, and recommendations offered in the preceding content, therefore, are intended to improve the capabilities of the study to carry out the important mandate of the Eating Breakfast in Relation to Classroom Behavior of Sophomore Psychology Students.This journal research highlights the panels key conclusions and recommendations resulting from its review organized by parts. Literature Cited Kleinman, R. (1998 March). New Harvard research shows school breakfast program may improve childrens behavior and performance.KidSource Online. Available at http//www. kidsource. com/kidsource/content4/breakfast. html Phillips, Gregory W. , Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams? , Bioscene Journal of College Biology Teaching, v30 n4 p15-19 descent 2005. 5 pp.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Tennesee Williams

All writer use to one degree or another elements of their lifetime to help formulate their uses and stories, but Tennessee Williams seems to draw more from his individual(prenominal) experiences than most(prenominal). After reading The Resemblance Between a Violin fact and a casket and doing some background research on the author it becomes preferably clear that he wrote this reputation as a reflection of his life. The similarities between the narrator/boy in the story and Tennessee himself are quite obvious, as hearty as other shells and members of his family.There are many specific aspects of Tennessees life that make The Resemblance Between a Violin Case and a Coffin a story that he is uniquely if not exclusively qualified to write. The first and most obvious similarity between Tennessee and the story is that the main spirit of the story is a boy, but not only a boy, a boy who is starting to discoer that he is attracted to men and may be a homosexual. This is obviously an area that Tennessee can relate to because he too was gay.But that single factor does not make the author unique in being able to write the story. What makes Tennessee specifically qualified to write the story is the time and place that he experienced the realities of being a boy discovering his sexuality. Tennessee was born in the complicated south of Columbus, Mississippi on March 26, 1911. This time in history is known for being intolerant of homosexuality, and if there was one region that stood out the most for this intolerance it would be the south.Even today Mississippi is considered one of the least tolerant states being ranked 38th on The Daily Beasts be of most tolerant states(thedailybeast. com). In fact Mississippi was one of the states that continued to practice sodomy laws until 2003 when the supreme court ruled it unconstitutional (thetaskforce. org). Growing up gay in the American south at this time would be riddled with hardships that few other places could matc h.For example Tennessee probably felt an obligation to skin his sexuality or suffer dire consequences. This would most likely result in awkward and strained relationships with members of the same sex. This can be seen in the story whenever the boy runs into Richard, When he turned to me and held his enormous hand out, I did a thing so grotesque that I could never afterward be go on him without a blistering sense of shame. Instead of taking the hand I ducked away from him. (Kenison, 318).This shows an insight into the life of a young Tennessee that feared being exposed if he were to talk to a boy he was attracted to. Another example in the story of the struggles of the author can be seen when the boy says, How on earth did I explain to myself, at that time, the fascination of his physical being without, at the same time, confessing to myself that I was a little monster? (Kenison, 319). This shows the authors denial of his sexuality and his view at the time that it was monstrous to be gay.Another area of resemblance between The Resemblance Between a Violin Case and a Coffin and Tennessees life is the similarities between characters in the story and member of his family, specifically his fix and babe. In The Glass Menagerie as well as many other of his works, Williams is suspect to base one of the character on his sister, Amandas daughter seems modeled on Rose Williams the fragile Laura who retreats from reality to play with glass figurines. (amswers. com). Williamss sister certain schizophrenia at some point in life which undoubtedly left a mark on Tennessee. The fragile nature in sister characters is seen as well in The Resemblance Between a Violin Case and a Coffin, when my sister got up later than usual with an uncommon look, not as if she had been crying, although perhaps she had, but as though she had received some painful or frightening surprise (Kenison, 312).This fragility in her character in not only violin but his other stories shows the unique r elationship between Tennessee and his ill sister. That relationship resulted in very specific character traits in some of his prominent female characters. Tennessees mother was also used as an influence in many of the characters in Tennessees works. Williams viewed his mother as a prototypical southern belle, constantly trying to climb the social ladder.He saw her as snobbish, neurotic, and hysterical and portrayed her that way with the characters she influenced. One such(prenominal) example in violin is when the boy compares the mother character to his aunt. Though my mother would certainly never make verbal acknowledgement of my aunts superiority in matters of taste and definitions of quality, it was nevertheless apparent that she approached Knoxville and my fathers younger sister in something very close to fear and trembling. (Kenison, 315).This display of neurotic fear over refined social skills exemplifies the mother character in violin and through association the authors actu al mother. Tennessee Williams story The Resemblance Between a Violin Case and a Coffin, in my opinion is a good story that reveals a great deal about the author himself. Through analyzing this story I acquired a much deeper and richer knowledge of Tennessee Williams than I have of many other authors. This is interesting considering I never even heard of him before reading the story.To cogitate what I learned about Williams I would say that he was able to write violin because of the specific circumstances that he lived and persevered through, as well as the impression his mother and sister left him. Him being gay during the early 1900s in the American south led him to write a story that offered an insight to a very different reality than my own that I would never had been aware of otherwise. For that widening of my horizons, I am thankful.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Walls Book Review

THEO 330-D03 Walls Do you ever scram the feeling that you argon missing out on something important? Ryan starts. Its Probably because you are. (Loc. 247) Many of us are missing out on all God has for our life. What is keeping us from living the life God intends? Walls separating us from the greatness God has destined for us. We dismay stuck plateauing in our spiritual progress, seeming to come to a screeching halt with our growth in the Lord. This is the issue Rush begins to portray in his book, Walls. Rush paints a wonderful picture of how we, as Christians, are to live authentic lives.He provides much Biblical insight in this book to care us break the beleaguers safekeeping us back. We might overcome these stumbling blocks by learning to trust and chase after our Creator with all we have. Only then, He will begin to introduce His computer program and promises. One of the greatest quotes of this book, is Ryans definition of a wall. He describes them as, an unhealthy mind-se t that keeps you from living life as God has intended. (Loc. 453) These bricks, slowly primed(p) down over time, can consist of negative thoughts, sins, doubts, and bitterness against our God.There are no quick fixes in breaking these walls. He says that we need decision, self-control, and a plan in order to get through. In order to break the wall, Rush describes, we need to be able to recognize that the wall is at that place. Throughout the book, Rush does a great job and telling the people what to do. He really lays down plans and ideas that can get you closer to breaking through. He gives us many tools and actions to help us. We are told to make a plan, to have self-control, and make decisions to break the walls. Rush really emphasizes on the different types of walls we might see.He names almost a dozen different walls and how we are stuck behind them. He always ended with emphasis on our decision is what keeps us locked up behind them. Everybody is stuck, but nobody has to b e, he names the chapter. One of the only issues, that I had found, was we were not given specific instruction slightly how to use these tools. He tells us we need to plan, but unfortunately, we do not se how to formulate such a plan. He tells us to use a hammer, but we do not know the specifics to using it. He gives us the keys to use the wrecking ball, but we receive no instruction to operate the crane.Without knowing how to operate the equipment, we are very unlikely to excavate these barriers in particular if you are the type-a kind of person. We need detailed instruction on how we are to begin the process, continue the process, and end the process of demolition. The positive aspect of this, would be that each reader has to learn from experience on how to succeed. We typically cannot cross these barriers in such short time. Applying this book to my life has been a great experience. I have been struggling much with different walls in my life. Pride has definitely been single of the most prevalent in my observation.I see that over time, I have strengthened a wall brick by brick. Creating these barriers do not usually happen overnight, but they seem to be a progressive construction they take preferably a bit of time. I just remember, in my own life, that after a year of keeping my guard down, I looked up and saw a giant wall that I never realized was there. If we arent careful, then we will slowly build a wall that can keep us enclosed for way too long and seem near impossible to break through. What we need to realize, is that we have to see that the wall is there and that you built it. This was one of the hardest steps for me.We have to decide to tear down the wall. This is a ton of work Unfortunately, if you begin to procrastinate the demolition, there is a good chance that the wall will continue to grow. We cant just start hitting the wall with a hammer we have to plan the demolition. If we just swing aimlessly, there is a slim chance that we will knock it down. We have to know where to hit, what to use, and how to prevent it from building back. Throughout this book, I have learned much about demolition that I have used in my own life. I am so glad that I was blessed to read this book it was a great help

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Engineer Ethics Essay

The roles of engineers ar respectively wide. Amongst the major responsibilities for engineers are design, construction supervision, consultation, project procurement, commissioning and management etc. Engineers are responsible to give the highest regard to his profession and conduct himself with integrity when executing his task. For example a good design solution would have to include ii important aspects namely design adequacy and damage effectiveness.In addition, engineers have obligation to generate design solutions that are surroundingsal friendly at the corresponding time meeting the demanding requirements of client. Engineers have a duty of care to the environment, society and to their valuable customers or clients. They would have to generate design that fulfill the design clauses in the engineering codes of design, meeting the requirements by the various Governmental Departments and incorporate design solutions that are environmental friendly which induce minimum negat ive impacts to the surrounding environment and society.Besides, engineers would have to take into consideration the cost subtraction of their design solution to their clients. This has caused great dilemma in engineers, as they have to balance cost implication of the design solution with other factors such as quality, efficiency and various socio-economy factors. In the context of a developing country like Malaysia, in approximately cases, clients however have different mindset from that of the engineers.Clients are more concern about the cost implication of the generated design solution they are more evoke in design solution that is cost effective and yet fulfills the minimum design requirements by the Government. In this respect, clients would normally opt for design solutions that are cost effective, that stay within their budget. Some clients would incorporate project budget that is far inadequate which requires the engineers to sacrifice the quality and long-term efficiencie s aspects in their design solution.This has obviously contradicted with the engineers interests of incorporating optimal design that would guarantee long-term efficiencies and easy maintenance. In addition, a not-up-to the standards design solution that obviously with an associated lower construction cost would mean that the engineer would be get a much lesser consultation fees in view that the engineering fees are normally proportional to the cost expenditure of the project. However these two factors, namely the cost factors and quality are normally indirectly roportional to one another. This has made the engineers life extremely tough and difficult. Engineers are constantly wondering if they should go for expensive design solution that would definitely give both long-term cost-efficient operations and maintenance and most importantly getting a higher(prenominal) professional fees, or go for an ok design solution that might not be able to guarantee the quality aspects of the pro ject and yet getting a lower professional fees.In view of the dilemma that engineers are constantly encountering in balancing capital expenditure with optimum design for efficient operations and maintenance, engineers should by all means combine both the design and cost aspects in the process of generating design solutions for their clients. Engineers should not produce a threepenny design solution that does not comply with the relevant code of practices with the purpose just to please their valuable clients, hoping for more projects. Neither should they generate expensive design, force out the cost implication of that particular design and with the purpose to obtain higher professional fee.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Case Study Report – Motorola

This case is about implementation of a tonic shared mental imagery concept within The latitude Division of Motorola Company. In 1993 Analog division was a major manufacturer of analog products in the world and had its divisions in many variant countries. In new(prenominal) haggle the division had strong global presence. In order to create more efficient global company, Alison and John fetch decided to develop new shared vision within The Analog Division where managers would be involved directly and indirectly in the decision making process.Before the new vision development, Analog Division and its managers was very limited in decision making. Because they had such a strong global presence their vision didnt work. The problem was that they were not open to new global ideas or possible obstacles where managers around the world would make decisions to cohereher. Visioning process of Motorolas Analog Division had number of cultural challenges. iodin of the challenges was the diff erence in the way different assimilations perceived concept of shared vision.One of the key words in the vision statement was family and compact. For instance, people in China take the word family literally and in their own setting this word is not appropriately applicable to vision statement. some other challenge was getting managers to think globally and get accustomed to the concept of shared vision. Many of the managers from different countries had their own cultural ways of doing things and to open ones ideas to others was baffling to achieve. Alison and John had hard time communicating to managers that this idea is not imposed on them.The major barrier in the vision implementation was the language. Sometimes, the same words in one language get hold of very different meaning in another. The following quote is good example of the language and communication carriage perception Good communication American style is to say what you mean precisely, in as straightforward a manne r as possible. Be direct, get to the point, and say what the bottom line is. For other cultures, this style is rude, abrasive and self-centered. (http//www. frugalmarketing. com/dtb/xcultcomm. html) Therefore, Alison and John were trying to be careful about this issue. They had vision statement indite in five different languages. The important thing was that the vision statement was not just literally translated but rather adjusted to its own culture so people of that division have clear understanding of the vision. First cultural misstep that Alison and John made was their lack of research prior to the task. They have conducted research regarding managers and the ways they communicate decisions overseas.They also gained insight of the success of each division but what they failed to consider some of the psychological cultural differences. They overlooked mishap of different reactions among the managers based on their background. For instance, some managers were afraid to lose the ir jobs where in fact that was not the case. We can see that from this quote Every culture possesses a unique mixture of attitudes, values, and social expectations. I think that Seven Tasks process in spades added significant value to the final results.The way the tasks were broken down helped both, managers and Alison to have a better grasp of the vision statement process. It was easier to account for details and to adjust to reactions by going through steps. Phase four will definitely be challenging one. Working in a group is one thing but agreeing on the process could be challenging especially where different cultures are agreeing on one thing. Another additional challenge is taking the vision to the future and building upon it.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Michelle Morano’s “Grammar Lessons: The Subjunctive Mood” Essay

The essay Grammar Lessons The Subjunctive Mood by Michele Morano is a work that parallels the Spanish quarrel and spirit. In the story, Michele reveals a little about herself as a character in the essay. She offers the commentator a glimpse into an extravagant daydream into the locales of exotic Spain in which she hopes to one day visit to escape her conserve whom had recently tried to kill himself. Throughout her fantastic tale, she encounters many unusual characters and proceeds to compare aspects of the Spanish language such as clauses like, si and como si (Morano 111), and verbs of doubt and emotion (114) to the complexities of life.As I first began reading the essay, I was puzzled that Morano chose to speak in the plump for tense as it is a rare form of writing, especially for a non-persuasive essay. While she was using her own experiences to provide the reader with an imaginary world, she wrote as though she hoped her audience would find themselves in her shoes. I also fo und it difficult to understand Moranos style of writing because of her choice to use the future tense. I was open to grasp the concept that this extravagant adventure had not occurred yet, but I found it difficult to insert myself in her whimsical, romantic production. Once I began reading the essay and analyzing it, however, I took a liking to her what-if style of writing. It suited the topic matter very well. Morano was able to equate the Spanish language with life beautifully with her writing style and extensive use of imagery.While I enjoyed the style of writing very much, the essay itself left me tentative on go or not I enjoyed the piece as a whole. I am very familiar with the Spanish language, but I believe Morano could get to clarified each educational segment a little further. As amusing as it was to brush up on high give lessons Spanish, I found the presentation of the content in the text itself very confusing. I am uncertain that I would develop enjoyed the piece as much had I not taken Spanish in earlier years of schooling. I also found it distracting how Morano would switch from her grammar lessons to her fantasy life in Spain so abruptly. blood line to read the piece, I was unsure of whether or not Morano had actually lived these experiences she was writing about, or if they were a thoughtful delusion of the future. For example, while reading about Moranos encounter with the swimmer (110), Ifound myself organism pulled into the reverie of this romance in Spain and suddenly I would be brought back to this lackluster high school Spanish class. And while Morano did provide the reader with a comparison from the language to the event itself, the change seemed so abrupt that it left me displeased.I also could have gone without the jumping back and forth between Moranos life with her depressed husband and her musing of a life in Spain. While I do believe that her history with her husband was pivotal to the back story, I found the bouncing between h er Spanish daydream and her real life experiences with her husband very distracting. I consider it would have suited the essay better had Morano simply used that as an introduction and left it at that.One have of the essay that I enjoyed, although, was the fact that Morano took something as lifeless as the Spanish language and seemed to enliven it to the reader. I find it very rare that an author is able to put life into something as cold as grammatical concepts, especially in a different language. Morano, through her experiences in Spain, was able to provide the reader with a looking glass into a world where language isnt just language and grammar isnt just grammar but theyre part of being alive. She is able to convey to the reader that while details such as how to express emotion in Spanish would seem tedious any opposite point, experiences such as sleeping with a stranger in Spain unexpectedly brings out these grammatical elements of human nature such as doubt and earnestness (115).As a whole, I did enjoy the essay. I found Moranos use of descriptions and interactions between characters very intriguing. I was able to sympathize with Morano as a character through her internal struggle of leaving the man that she had been with for a long while for a fresh start in Spain.Morano, Michele. The Best American Essays. Grammar Lessons the Subjunctive Mood. Ed. Lauren Slater. Boston Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006. 107-121.Grammar Lessons The Subjunctive Mood

Monday, May 20, 2019

Values and Interest

Step 1 Values, Interests and Skills Review the numbering learning related to the importance of Career Self-Assessment. http//www. job-hunt. org/career-change/self-assessment. shtml Write one paragraph reflecting on your sets. I value life and life itself and the lives of my family and the people who are close to me. I also value religion and the guidance that it portrays. I value my education and professional career beca determination it has helped to stigma me what I am today. I pass because I not only have to, but because I want the go through and the knowledge that I will gain from a life of work.I want to be able to use this knowledge to not only help myself and my family, but to also help and t each(prenominal) others, and to also stag a different so that I can leave and everlasting impression on whoever I may come in contact with. I also value the ability to deliver and to speak freely. I value my ability to be self motivated in whatever task that I may be given. Write o ne paragraph reflecting on your interests. I am interested in having a career in the heath care administrative field, may it be information, quality control, managed care, finance, marketing etc.This has always been a passion of mine to work in this type of environment because I tactile property as though these are the areas in health care that are really being miss and neglected, and I really want to make a different in organizing and using my knowledge and skills to ameliorate upon these various areas. I enjoy working with people and I dont have a problem working alone. I love to work in environments that are eruptgoing and organized and turn the ability to grow and be exposed to different things. Write one paragraph reflecting on your ducky skills.My favorite skills are the ability to break apart and research along with effective communication. I also pass on information creatively to specific problems or tasks that I may be faced with or depute to along with sort data and objects, compile and rank information, identify alternative courses of action, set realistic goals and follow through with a plan or decision, manage time effectively, predict future trends and patterns, and accommodate threefold demands for commitment of time, energy and lastly set priorities. Step 2 Personality Assessment Review the information at http//www. myersbriggs. org/my-mbti- soulality-type/mbti-basics/Include each of the four letters of your code below. Use one line for each letter. After reviewing the meaning of each letter, include your interpretation of this information and what this means to you. (Your response should be a minimum of two sentences. ) I I prefer to keep to myself and not let matters or issues in the give awayside world effect how I live my life. NI love to interpret reason and analyze things. I tend to use these skills when I am learning something new and researching TI am a psyche. I prefer to think about things logically before I go ahead and make any major decisions on anything.P or JI use two perceiving and judging because I similar to make decisions but I am also open to new ideas. Step 3 verbal expression Now that you have completed a reflection of your values, personality, skills and interests write one to two paragraphs indicating how this information ties to your career. Be sure to consider all four elements you reflected upon. The purpose of this assessment was to reflect on finding out who you as a person, what are your interest, values and the skills that you possess. All of these are factors that will be needed in order to build a successful personal and professional life.The assessment also helps you to figure out your likes and dislikes that you may have regarding various activities. The personality assessment also helps you to find out what type of person you are, and this may also consider what type of people you or what type environment you may work best in. Such as being in tuned with yourself or the outside world, being a thinker or follower, a self starter or person who likes to told what to do. The purpose of the self assessment cocksucker is that people who share similar interests will also enjoy the same type of work and how in-chief(postnominal) different values are to you.Examples of these values, which play an important role in ones job satisfaction, include autonomy, prestige, security, social relations, helping others, flexible work schedule, outdoor work, leisure time, and high salary. In addition to determining what youre sober at, the skills assessment also helps you figure out what you enjoy doing. The skills you use in your career should combine both characteristics. You can use the results of the skills assessment to make some changes by acquiring the skills you need for a extra career.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Current Trends in Leadership Essay

Now a day draws be following a trend of As hotshot, which is a short phrase but it is filled with meaning and inspiration. In simple backbone As one means to sum up the individual actions into collective power. According to the article individuals can meet to achieve extraordinary results together. Every day sight meet, collaborate from dissimilar countries, organizations and industries so that to make the things happen. In this, some collaborations are unintentional, some are deliberately or sometimes it uses web technologies. But the grassroots fundamental reason behind these collaborations or working as one phenomenon is to contract a amiable edge.And this benignant edge is usu anyy determined by the organization that vanquish works as one. leadinghip have added the phrase as one which has changed its meaning completely. For e.g. working, it is an individual action but when it is connected with as one the entire meaning of both word and the phrase has changed, i.e. w orking as one, which shows the power of sovietism in an organization. Similarly winning versus winning as one, stronger versus stronger as one. Now they know that sources of inspirations are endless, conscionable think of the possibilities and believe as one, succeed as one. The definition of loss leading is evolving, such as* round assert leadership is all about productivity, making employees work together efficiently. They say that great leader should get people to have a common interpretation around how to work together. * Some say leadership is all about people. They say a leaders job is to develop peoples sense of belonging to their group. They believe a great leader should get people to have a strong shared identity or sense of who they are. * Some say leadership is all about purpose.They feel a leaders job is to drive peoples cargo to act on the goals of the organization. A great leader gets people to have a strong sense of directional intensity around what they need to do together. But a real leader should lead all these things. Some leaders call it working as one and it represents the pinnacle of collective leadership, or leadership that results in a cohesive group of people working together efficaciously toward a common goal or purpose. As one may seem primarily available to leaders and their teams, but it doesnt just have to be about internal interactions. The concept is a starting time point for all leaders to understand how they can apply specific collective leadership techniques to best fit their situations and challenges.* Employees Trust in his Leader2One out of four employees do not institutionalise their leader. What leaders do so that their employees want them? And how they know that whether their employees swear him or not? A leader should have answers for these questions. As a leader, you cant afford to avoid religious belief between you and your employees or teammates. A lack of trust in leader results in negative impact on round retention, employee well being and performance. Trust requires a person to have reliance and confidence in the actions of another, with no guarantee that he/she pull up stakes behave as desired in return. When applied to leadership, trust is a persons willingness to take a risk for a leader with the expectations that, in exchange, the leader will behave in some desired way. To maximize the trust leaders receive from their employees, they demonstrate troika qualities. 1. Competence (Can they do the job?)2. Benevolence (Do they care about me?) and3. Integrity (Are they honest?).Integrity is the more(prenominal) or less important part at 41 percent, the benevolence at 34 percent, then competence at 25 percent. When the goal is to maximize the trust, leaders must know how to do their jobs well, but it is even more important for them to be considerate, supportive and honest with their employees. Leaders not only demonstrate these three qualities- honest, openhearted and compet ent, but they have also try to be seen to be so. Now leaders show trust in people around them. They listen to their employees, empathize with them, show their concern for the employees, are honest with them, straight to their word, and treat them fairly. Leaders actively manage how they are perceived by others.They try to connect their employees at a personal level, which could be as simple as shaking hands with them. There are clear links between professional human capital management (HCM) best practices (such as kick statements, regular surveys and performance reviews) and trust in leadership. These practices, typically of progressive organizations, and are also linked to levels of trust in leadership. Employees are twice as likely to trust their senior leaders if the organization has pursue in these practices. And the more of these best practices that the organization engages in, the greater the level of employee trust in leadership.ConclusionOn the basis of the studies, I cam e to know that different leaders are following different trends in their leadership techniques. So there is no set trend for leadership. Also different people have different opinion about their leaders. But what I realized from my learning on these articles that to have a winning and competitive edge, organizations require leaders who can inspire, motivate, direct, etc. their employees to achieve the companys goal effectively and efficiently. Leaders should also build their trust on employees, so that they can trust and believe their leaders for better outcomes and staff retention. Also I came to know that leaders are practicing to work in a team and currently they are using a trend of As one, that is whole organization is one and they are having a common goal, objective and vision.Sources1. Leadership Excellence, Art. Collective leadership, March 2012 2. Leadership Excellence, Art. How to gain trust?, May 2012

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Contextual factors on the adoption and infusion of ABC

The straits exitk aims of this abide by be to look into the influence of certain contextual factors on the instruction writ of effect arranges, credenza and omit of alphabet, and besides to look into whether the betrothal and remove of alphabet crack Persian double-dealing supports creation first appearance ( fiscal and non fiscal )This chapter provides a treatment to which conclusions reported in Chapter five argon up to(p) to fork over replies to the explore inquiries and achieve the investigate objectives set out at the beginning of the research. The findings of this keep up supply groundss in lead distinguishable positions execution of instrument microscope stages, borrowing, and aspirate of first rudiment and in these countries atomic number 18 tested tierce major(ip)(ip) contextual facAtors environsal factors, scientific factors, and organisational factors. in that locationfore, the keep uping iiisome subdivisions discuss the instantees re juveniled to three major contextual facAtors surroundingsal factors, technological factors, and organisational factors. Following subdivision provides treatment on hypotheses 7 which predicted that the effectuate of only(prenominal) contextual factor on first principle execution casts be changed. Then relationships amid execution phases, sufferance, c only down of rudiment and organisational macrocosm presentation are presented. Following subdivision provides treatment relationship amidst execution phases, sufferance, omit of alphabet and organisational human race presentation. The early(a) subdivision the deduction of the passel, and discusses about two theoretical and practical deductions. This is followed by the treatment on the survey s possible restrictions. For get the better ofing such restrictions, some(prenominal) suggestions are presented for early research. Finally, in the last subdivision, decision on the overall findings is presented.6.1. Te chnological factors and first principle1 ) Degree of discipline engineering flavour ( IT ) Hypothesis one(a) that predicted the ordained emergence of IT on three positions of alphabet was non supported. IT did non signifi arsetly match the execution phases, and buy food alphabet. Further much, it was plunge that IT to be negatively related to rudiment bankers acceptance.As point of reference in old chapters, acceptance has been the political boss event in alphabet surveies. In this survey that first rudiment execution was considered as the seven phases affair, ABC adopted parent was defined as a ho engagement who meet at least phases 4 or supra. It convey the ABC acceptance is vary from broadcast to follow ABC to ABC admit adopted . The minute destines the negative way out of IT on ABC acceptance. This tendency is considered with survey by Krumwide ( 1998b ) who find that high item of study trunk ( IT ) may military force shacks to reject ABC before interest. She argued that crime syndicates in high information agreement quality that are slaked with information provided from bing system magnate be loath to put their resources in following ABC system. It cypherms that houses who excite non reached the acceptance phase besides invest in a big sum of resource on IT. Possibly excessively much IT applys the focal point off from following ABC. These publications suggest houses without high IT quality possibly much able to follow ABC.This survey used seven execution phases and defined draw in ABC as the phase seven Used extensively . For analy chant stir ABC merely ABC adoptive parent houses are included in the sample ( n = 33 ) . In the phase seven, ABC information is used outside the youthfuls report section for determination devising. This phase is frequently cited as an of implication end or ABC success. However, accomplishing this end can be hard some research workers believed that organisational factors have consequence on arouse ABC much than the other factors ( e.g. , Shields, 1995 Krumwiede, 1998b ) . The IT did non play essential figure out for houses to travel high execution phases of ABC and accomplishing infuse ABC. Besides this consequence is non congruity with of Krumwiede ( 1998b ) who find arbitrary consequence of IT on attract ABC, it seems the comparatively petty sample size for the provoke abridgment failed IT acting importationant fly the coops.2 ) Degree of merchandise diverseness ( piston ) In this survey DIVER relates to the classification of merchandises that are manufactured by a house. H ( 2 ) provinces that grad of merchandise diverseness has a despotic consequence on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( academic form Celsius ) ABC express. Hypothesis ( 1 ) was secernately supported and the consequences suggest that there is a positive and important consequence of DIVER on ABC execution and ABC acceptance, but grounds rend ers DIVER did non significantly affect ABC raise.This suggests that as merchandise diverseness is high, the houses make greater following ABC and besides they are motivated to run into higher(prenominal) phase of ABC execution. These happening supported by galore(postnominal) research workers ( e.g. , Bjornenak 1997 Clarke et al. , 1999 Krumwiede, 1998b Cagwin and Bouwman, 2002 Brown et al. , 2004 ) . They believed that high degree of merchandise diverseness increase the demand of more accurate live systems which is a primary ground for following a new bing system such as ABC. This is what Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) where they argued that tralatitious be systems has some failing ( e.g. , distorted the terms of merchandises ) and this failing in high degree of DIVER bequeath be addition. The consequence suggests that merchandise diverseness increased the houses are more in all probability to utilizing ABC system. So for get the better ofing this failing the houses that p roduce more than five merchandises tend to be more seeming to utilize ABC than houses with fewer products..DIVER does non play an of import function in press ABC. This determination is contestant with Krumwiede ( 1998b ) make up similar consequence. Previous surveies ( Cooper and Zmud 1990 Shields 1995 Krumwiede, 1998b ) suggest that organisational factors are more of import than technological factors for making the extract phase. It seems achieve the cogitate phase of ABC ( utilize extensively ) is an intimate challenges which affected by other variables. Furthermore, possibly the comparatively half-size sample size for the extract abridgment failed DIVER playing important functions.3 ) Degree of in operation(p) put down ( everywhere ) The step of OVERE mixed with the measuring of house s cost construction and per centum of operating outlay calculated and applied as a value of OVER. However, the descriptive statistic consequence ( table 5.15, p.190 ) shows in 52.7 % of houses, more than 24 % of entire cost is overhead, which is high degree of operating expense. These findings are rather similar to Xiong et Al. ( 2008 ) where they found that in Chinese fabrication houses the per centum of fabricating overhead disbursal have increased in recent decennaries. Furthermore, many research workers believed that the operating expenses apportionment method in handed-down cost system is non accurate, therefore the higher degree of overAhead is the chief ground for altering the traditional cost system to new cost method of report systems such as ABC ( Narong, 2009 Xiong et al. , 2008 ) .H ( 3 ) that was antecedently expected a positive consequence of degree of operating expense on three positions of ABC is marginally supported. However, the determination shows mixes consequences and propose three opposite functions for relationships between OVER and execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC system. In execution phases, OVER is non an of impo rt factor finding execution phases. In ABC acceptance, OVER positively influence the ABC acceptance. Furthermore OVER effects extract of ABC negatively.Kaplan ( 1991 ) believed that the overhead allotment system falsify the cost in traditional costing systems. The positive consequence of OVER on ABC acceptance is consistent with many research workers ( e.g. , Brent, 1992 Sohal and Chung, 1998 Wynder, 2008 Cagwin and Bouwman, 2002 nurture and Swenson, 1997 ) . The consequence suggested the houses with high OVER are more likely to follow ABC. Krumwiede ( 1998a ) argued that in low degree of overhead cost is a lower potency for cost deformations, and in this status, the benefits of ABC may be limited. In high degree of operating expense, potency for cost deformations is high. ABC may cut refine merchandise cost deformations well nevertheless, this status might force houses to follow ABC system.In bank line houses with low OVER are more likely to finish acceptance procedure and meeting extract ABC. Besides this consequence is non congruence with of with Krumwiede ( 1998b ) who found that OVER does non impact extract ABC, is congruity with many research workers who found that the major trouble faced by following ABC successfully was finding of cost drivers and developing an activity lexicon ( e.g. , Khalid, 2005 Anand et al. , 2005 ) . They indicate that the higher the ground floor of OVER, the higher trouble is for happening cost drivers is. So it seems the troubles for happening accurate cost driver within acceptance phases hinder the houses to make extract ABC ( last phase ) .However, the determination shows mixes consequences for OVER and propose three various functions of OVER on three positions of ABC. This determination contestant by the institution theory that indicated a variable may hold incompatible consequence on different phases ( Cooper and Zmud, 1990 ) . The overall consequence for over indicate the effects of OVER on three positions of ABC are changed.6.2. Environmental factors and ABC1 ) Perceived environmental uncertainty ( PEU ) From expletory factor abstract for PEU, three constituent factors were extracted sensed environmental uncertainty-indus mental test ( PEU-IND ) , perceived environmental uncertainty-financial ( PEU-FIN ) , perceived environmental uncertainty-economical ( PEU-ECO ) . Three dimensions of PEU measuring are based on gauging the predictability in many facets included house s providers, rivals, clients, financial/ swell markets, authorities regulative, labour brotherhoods, and economic sciences, politics/technology. As shows by the descriptive statistic ( table 5.17, p.191 ) PEU in all factors have average tonss above 3.00. It means the economical activities of Iran are surrounded by high degree of sensed environment uncertainness ( PEU ) . In this status the houses may non be able to foretell future easy therefore impede them to implement ABC or other new advanced accounting system .Hypothesis 4 that provinces that PEU has a negative consequence on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract is marginally supported. From three dimensions of PEU merely PEU-FIN affects negatively ABC execution, all three dimensions of PEU negatively affect ABC acceptance. Furthermore, PEU-FIN affects positively ABC extract.As expected, PEU appears to play a major function in the acceptance ABC. There are negative and important relationships between all three dimensions of PEU and ABC acceptance, bespeaking the lower the grade of PEU, the higher purpose for following ABC is. Besides this consequence is unreconciled with of Anderson ( 1995 ) where found that environmental uncertainness promotes ABC acceptance, is consistent with Jusoh ( 2008 ) who found PEU negatively affect Balanced menu Measures ( BSC ) use.Although the relationships between environmental uncertainness and the execution phases, acceptance, and extract ABC have non teste d in the lease surveies before, the extent of publications in other cost cheat system ( e.g. , mark costing and match scorecard ) and thrill accounting systems ( MAS ) supported these relationships ( e.g. , Gul, 1991 Lat and Hassel 1998 Jusoh, 2008 Chenhall and Morris, 1993 Hussain, 2003 Ax et al. , ( 2008 ) . The common decision of these surveies is that when the environmental uncertainness is considered high, directors holding less entree to information needed to do determinations and can non delegate chances to the results of the determinations. It seems under fainthearted conditions, director ( possibly for cut bolt down the hazard of the altering system ) does non supply resources for implementing new construct system such as ABC. The low rate of utilizing ABC in Iran ( 6.91 % ) may evolve with this determination.In contrast, merely one PEU declines, PEU-FIN positively affect ABC extract. This consequence indicated that after houses adopt ABC system, the higher PEU -FIN motivates them to finish the execution procedure and involve to last phase ( used extensively ) or concluding end. PEU-FIN related to predictability of financial/capital markets aspect, it seems in unsure environment fiscal resources are instable therefore unswerving collapsible shelter to rapidly make the concluding end of execution procedure, if they wait the cost might increase dramatically. Furthermore, these houses need to utilize ABC as chief system cost accounting system to better their cost accounting information. These acquiring consequences are consistent with Anderson ( 1995 ) who indicated that environmental uncertainness promotes ABC. Furthermore, more late Ax et Al. ( 2008 ) found that the execution of mark costing was correlated with the degree of PEU.The overall determination indicates from three decline of PEU, PEU-FIN has important consequence on three on three positions of ABC. However, an of import determination of this survey is that PEU-FIN is besides as sociated with ABC extract. There is important consequence with merely one decline of PEU on extract ABC. Some pervious research workers propose that organisational factors ( e.g. , house size, preparation, and thrill support ) may impact the extract ABC procedure more than the technological and environmental variables ( e.g. , Shields, 1995 Cooper and Zmud 1990 Krumwiede, 1996 ) .2 ) Degree of competition ( COMPT ) aspiration refers to the grade of competition a house faces in a peculiar market. Hypothesis 5 which predicted the positive consequence of COMPET on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract is partly supported. The COMPET positively affect execution phases and acceptance but COMPET is non an of import factor finding extract ABC.Malmi ( 1999 ) argued that competition influences the demand of accurate cost accounting information. The incorrect cost information in exceedingly competitory industries errors made, these errors may work by rivals instantly. Furthermore, Anderson and Young ( 1999 ) believed that in extremely competitory status, houses focus on sale mo lettuceary value and cost decrease. They argued that in this status new cost informations such as ABC are most valuable. Furthermore ABC may supply accurate and clear information that may assist tauten to cut down the cost. The determination that COMPET positively affect execution phases and acceptance quit similar to study consequence conducted by Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) who found that non-competitive state of affairss such as monopoly can take to utilize traditional cost accounting than with ABC. Furthermore, Anderson ( 1995 ) found competition played an of import function in conveying cost systems under direction review and improved the hunt for happening new cost direction attacks so high degree of competition encourage houses to follow ABC.In contrast, COMPET is non an of import factor finding extract ABC. Previous surveies ( Cooper a nd Zmud 1990 Shields 1995 Krumwiede, 1998b ) believed that organisational factors are more of import than environmental or technological factors for making the extract phase. It seems achieve the concluding phase of ABC ( utilize extensively ) is an inbred challenges which affected by organisational factors. Furthermore, possibly the comparatively little sample size for the extract depth psychology failed COMPET playing important functions.3 ) Business shunning the accounting literature suggests that houses use peculiar accounting system, is depending on which turning away they adopt. Gosselin ( 1997 ) asserted that Miles and degree Celsius s typology is more appropriate for analyzing the issue of invention direction accounting systems such as ABC. This survey examined the grade to which houses emphasize each of the cephalalgia scheme types proposed by Miles and Snow ( 1978 ) who identified four strategic types of organisations harmonizing to the rate of alteration merchandise s and markets prospectors ( STRA-P ) , guardians ( STRA-D ) , analysers ( STRA-A ) , and reactors ( STRA-R ) . Prospectors are characterized by their dynamism in want market chances. Defenders have a scheme which is the polar antonym from prospectors they operate within a contract product-market sphere characterized by high production volume and low merchandise diverseness. Analyzers stand between these both classs, sharing features of both prospectors and guardians. Reactors do non follow a witting scheme. As shows by the descriptive statistic ( see table 5.18, p.192 ) , most houses ( 32.4 ) adopt reactor scheme, prospector scheme is least adopted by houses ( 19.1 % ) .Hypothesis 6 ( H6 ) suggested that prospectors are more likely to be ( a ) in higher phases of ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC adoptive parents, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC infuser. H ( 6 ) is non supported. Although houses who adopt ABC employ a peculiar scheme, face-to-face with expected, analysers are more likel y to be in higher phases of ABC execution and ABC adoptive parents Furthermore result indicated that extract ABC does non use a peculiar scheme.Although, the consequence did support hypothesis related to concern scheme, it shows analyser scheme with sharing advantages of both prospector and guardian is the beaver type of scheme to follow ABC and to travel to higher ABC execution. It seems in unsure environment that Persian houses faced, analysers houses have more tolerance and they can foretell necessary elements to do ABC acceptance determination, and to travel to higher ABC execution phases. These important determination is consistent with a statistical survey conducted by Bhimani et Al. ( 2005 ) where they found that scheme influenced the determination to see ABCM, scheme influenced the success of ABCM execution They asserted that houses will put more accent on peculiar accounting techniques or information, depending on which scheme they adopt.In contrast, the consequence indica ted that for run intoing the last phase ( ABC extract phase ) houses no demand to use a peculiar scheme. This is what Moll ( 2005 ) found in her survey in that ABC user houses did non follow a peculiar scheme. As reference in old treatment, organisational factors are more of import than environmental or technological factors for making the extract phase. It seems achieve the concluding phase of ABC ( utilize extensively ) is an internal challenges which affected by organisational factors. Furthermore, possibly the comparatively little sample size for the extract analysis failed STRA playing important functions.6.3. organizational factors and ABC1 ) Firm size ( SIZE ) Size is measured as the degree of one-year gross revenues gross of the respondent s houses. H ( 8 ) that proposed SIZE has a positive consequence on ( a ) ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC acceptance, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC extract strongly supports. The consequences suggested the SIZE significantly affect execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC. As expected, the larger the company, the more likely it is to follow ABC, and wining to higher execution phases even last phase ( stage 7 extract phase ) . Larger companies may besides hold more resources to put for inventions like ABC. This determination is consistence with 2 statistical surveies by Krumwiede ( 1998b ) and Krumwiede and Suessmair, ( 2005 ) . Krumwiede ( 1998b ) found that SIZE was a important variable in the ABC acceptance analysis and Krumwiede and Suessmair ( 2005 ) found size positively affect extract and range to high degree of German cost accounting methods ( GPK ) . Bjornenak ( 1997 ) argued that big houses have the needed resources, such as clip, financess, and forces to finance the substructure and, hence, are more capable of following ABC. Additionally, big houses with economic sciences of graduated table are more likely to afford the execution of ABC. Further, harmonizing to Van Nguyen and Brooks ( 1997 ) larger h ouses are more likely to hold greater entree to the cognition of design and implement ABC.2 ) Top direction support ( TMSUP ) Krumwiede ( 1996 ) asserted the cover song direction support have connexion with houses that have begun acceptance ABC, therefore it merely tested for extract analysis together with both other technological and environmental factors. H ( 9 ) that stated hand direction support has a positive consequence on ABC extract is strongly supported. The literature has identified that if top direction support the ABC, the hazard of the undertaking is reduced, entree to resources is increased and cut downing project uncertainness and thereby doing acceptance is easier ( e.g. Shields, 1995 Cooper et al. , 1992 Krumwiede, 1998b Brown et al. , 2004 Krumwiede and Suessmair, 2005 Melah and Nasir Ibrahim, 2006 ) . These important determination is consistent with a statistical survey conducted by Dosch and Wilson ( 2007 ) where they found that the most of import factors to ABC success was top direction support. Shields ( 1995 ) argued that the function of top directors support for ABC execution success is of import because can deny resources for acceptance an invention if they do non back up. Furthermore they can supply the political aid needed to stumble or force aside persons and alliances who resist the invention if they support.3 ) Degree of preparation ( TRAIN ) Because the direct of developing have connexion with houses that have begun acceptance ABC, it is non considered for the early acceptance ABC, and they merely tested for extract analysis together with other factors. Hypothesis 10 that asserted preparation has a positive consequence on ABC extract is non supported. The deficiency of significance for consequence of preparation on ABC extract is besides surprising. The determination that quit similar to study consequence conducted by Maelah and Nasir Ibrahim ( 2006 ) who did non happen found important influence of preparation on AB. Furthermore, Krumwiede ( 1998b ) found a negative consequence of train on ABC extractIt seems the deficiency of significance for relationship between preparation and extract ABC is related to little sample size for the extract analysis ( n = 33 ) . Furthermore, from this little sample, more houses ( n = 20 ) houses are at the initial phase of ABC acceptance. Therefore, the preparation in relation to ABC was non expression as an of import factor among these organisations.6.4 Changes the consequence of contextual factorHypothesis 7 ( H7 ) stated that the consequence of these contextual factors degree of information engineering quality, degree of merchandise diverseness, degree of operating expense, perceived environmental uncertainness, degree of competition, concern scheme, and steadfast size alteration in ABC execution phases. Consequence shows ( see table5.31, p.210 ) from 7 variable merely 2 variable ( SIZE and STRA-A ) have same consequence on the ABC execution phases and the H ( 7 ) partly supported.This determination besides is consistency with many ABC surveies ( e.g. , Anderson, 1995 Krumwiede, 1998b Gosselin, 1997 ) which found that the consequence of selected factors vary from phase to present. Although they use a different phase theoretical account and different factors, they found same consequence that different factors associated with the different phases. Furthermore, this determination is consistency with information systems ( IS ) invention theory ( Kwon and Zmud, 1987 ) which astray accepted by the most of ABC research workers. The theory suggested that alteration occur in phases and grade of importance for each contextual factor is differ in several ABC execution phases.6.5 Organizational public presentationTwo types of public presentation go are typically used to measure a house s public presentation fiscal and non fiscal travel. Hussain ( 2003 ) asserted multidimensional public presentation steps improve the public presentation measuri ng.1 ) Financial public presentation ( PER-FIN ) Hypothesis 11 that proposed houses who are ( a ) in higher ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC adoptive parents, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC infuser have greater degree of fiscal public presentation is to the full supported. The consequences show houses who are in higher ABC execution phases have greater degree of fiscal public presentation than houses who are in lower phases. ABC adoptive parents have greater degree of fiscal public presentation than non adoptive parents houses. Furthermore the consequence indicated ABC infuser has greater degree of fiscal public presentation than non infuser houses. This is what Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) found in their survey in that positive relationship between ABC acceptance and betterment their fiscal public presentation.1 ) Non fiscal public presentation ( PER-NFIN ) Hypothesis 12 that asserted houses who are ( a ) in higher ABC execution phases, ( B ) ABC adoptive parents, and ( degree Celsius ) ABC infuser have greater degree of non fiscal public presentation is to the full supported. The consequences show houses who are in higher ABC execution phases have greater degree of non fiscal public presentation than houses who are in lower phases. ABC adoptive parents have greater degree of non fiscal public presentation than non adoptive parents houses. Furthermore the consequence indicated ABC infuser has greater degree of non fiscal public presentation than non infuser houses. This important determination is consistent with a statistical survey conducted by Kennedy and Affleck-Graves ( 2001 ) where they found that the ABC acceptance significantly improves organisational public presentation including fiscal and non fiscal public presentation.Furthermore, Cooper et Al. ( 1992 ) argue that the end of ABC is to increase net incomes, non to obtain more accurate costs . Damanpour ( 1987 ) believed that directors are involved to the issue of bettering their organisational public presentation by following inventions. Cooper and Kaplan ( 1991 ) believed that ABC analysis enable directors to understand the beginnings of cost variableness and shows actions they can take to cut down demands on their organisational resources. Gering ( 1999 ) argued that activity-based costing by concentrating on which client or merchandise is economic can better public presentation. Cagwin and Bouwman ( 2002 ) argued that steps of success of ABC related to better fiscal public presentation.Some research workers named extract ABC as an ABC success while acceptance is means apply ABC and get down point for implementing ABC. Meanwhile, proving ABC extract shows the clear imagination of ABC acceptance success. Sing the benefits of ABC, nevertheless, are most of import groundss which indicated that ABC user increased net incomes and obtained more public presentation. Some benefits which ABC research workers found as follow more able to measure out cost accurately, better apprehensi on of merchandise costing, and develop public presentation measurings ( Kiani and Sangeladjiai, 2003 Khalid, 2005 ) , better understanding for cost decrease chances, and improves managerial determination and besides proviso of better cost control, higher degrees of satisfaction with their organisations bing system ( Moll, 2005 Brent 1992 ) , bettering the truth of cost measured for different merchandises and services by more accurately depute direct cost, utility of cost information for determination ( Clausen, 2002 Cooper and Kaplan, 1992 ) , Supplying a dependable index finger of long-term variable merchandise cost which is peculiarly relevant to, managerial decision-making at a strategic degree ( Sohal and Chung, 1998 ) .6.6. Deductions of the surveyThe findings of this survey have both practical and theoretical deductions. Attewell ( 1992 ) commemorated that most statistical surveies on inventions have used two distinguishable positions for analysis acceptance and extract. But this survey effort utilizing one more distinguishable position for analysis execution phases.6.6.1. Theoretical deductionsAt the degree of theory, the primary relevancy lies in its scrutiny in three distinguishable positions execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC. This survey attempts to lend to the theoretical thoroughgoing structure of cognition in four Fieldss.In the file of cost accountings invention, the determination can explicate utilizing ABC as an of import cost accounting invention. ABC introduced to get the better of failing of traditional cost accounting system. Although utilizing ABC demonstrates advantages and improves house s public presentation degree of utilizing of this system is whitewash lower than traditional 1. Besides the determination may explicate this paradox by demoing the negative consequence of some factors on ABC acceptance which are non under the directions control ( e.g. , environmental uncertainness ) or affect of some factors oppos ite what was antecedently expected ( e.g. , information engineering quality ) . The potency for direction accounting literature ( MAS ) to inform ABC execution research is highlighted by this survey. Mireover, this survey contributes to the accounting invention literature refering the combination consequence of certain contextual factors on execution phases, acceptance, and extract of ABC.Further, the chief part is conceptualisation of sensed environmental uncertainness ( PEU ) and its investigated consequence that indicated influences of PEU on execution phases, acceptance, and extract of activity-based costing ( ABC ) . This survey identified the PEU as a most of import determiner for making the acceptance and extract of ABC.In add-on, this survey contributes to the literature sing to applied multidimensional public presentation steps and trial difference of fiscal and non fiscal public presentation between adoptive parents / non adoptive parents, infusers / non infusers, and low execution phases / high phases groups.Furthermore, the survey contributes to the strategic direction literature with supplying groundss refering the designation and measuring of Miles and Snow s scheme typology. Furthermore the determination can explicate that houses use peculiar accounting system, is depending on which scheme they adopt.6.6.2. Practical deductionsFrom the determination of this survey, there are deductions in four practical countries. First sing the ABC system designs, different contextual factors ( i.e. , technological, environmental, and organisational factors ) are tested to happen whether they affect acceptance, and extract ABC. The determination is shown technological factors ( e.g. , Information system quality, merchandises diverseness, and operating expense ) , environmental factors ( e.g. , Uncertainty, competition, and scheme ) and organisational factors ( e.g. , size ) consequence the acceptance ABC. Furthermore, the consequences indicate the positive func tion for these full variables except information engineering and uncertainness that affect ABC acceptance negatively. Furthermore, the consequence shows size, direction support, and uncertainty-financial positively affect extract ABC.Focus on factors that influence ABC acceptance and extract will supply utile flashiness for houses who are interested for using ABC. Based on the determination of this survey, organisations in high rate of positive ABC adoptive parents features are the good campaigners for following ABC. It seems these consequences may be of import for non-ABC adoptive parents houses sing acceptance or ABC adoptive parents houses sing extract ABC. Organizations may desire to compare themselves on these factors to find how closely they make consecutive with following and infusing houses.Second, with respect to the regard of concern scheme use, the determination provides groundss that concern scheme is a cardinal character in the implementing and following ABC system. Th e determination indicated adoptive parents houses are following peculiar scheme. From Miles and Snow ( 1978 ) scheme typology, analyser are more likely to be in higher ABC execution phase and besides ABC acceptance. Based on the determination of this survey, houses that choose analyzer scheme analyser are good campaigners for following ABC. Thus these companies may be refering for utilizing ABC to develop their cost accounting system. Organizations may desire to compare themselves on scheme to find how closely they make consecutive with adopting houses.Third, the most of import determination of this survey is following and inculcating ABC system better both fiscal and non fiscal organisational public presentation. These consequences should be of import for non-ABC adoptive parents houses sing acceptance or ABC adoptive parents houses sing extract ABC. Firms may actuate to following ABC to better their organisational public presentation. Furthermore, houses who are adopted ABC may be tter their cost accounting methods by extract ABC and accomplishing concluding end.6.7. RestrictionAs with any research, this survey has many restrictions that must be cited. The undermentioned restrictions are the most relevant. First, the pick of get a lineing frame is old restrictions. This survey covers merely fabricating sectors selected from Tehran Stock Exchange ( TSE ) and consequences of the survey besides need to be generalized with cautiousness. There are any generalisations of the consequences to other sector ( e.g. , distribution, retail, services, transit, and others ) should be with cautiousness. In this instance future research should see other sectors such as service and non-profit sectors, authorities organisation in order to acquire better apprehension of the ABC system and its application. Further, the existent population of fabrication houses in whole Iran was non considered. In this instance, future research should look into across geographical parts in Iran t o get the better of the restriction of little sample size.Second, the response rate was indicateably high at a degree of 44 % and t-test was performed to try forestalling this job. Gosselin ( 1995 ) believed that there is no manner to cognize for certain whether the non-respondents are different than the respondents. However, it can non reason that respondents are equal option for the whole population of fabrication listed on TSE. For future research suggested that uses both questionnaire study and instance survey methods to avoid this restriction.Third, questionnaire were use to obtain informations and focused for mensurating the respondents perceptual experiences. Therefore, the variable steps are more subjective than other possible types of information. For illustration in this survey the operating expense cost assumes as an independent variable and its measuring was more subjective, future research should put a greater concern for measuring variables and should utilize seconda ry informations for mensurating some variable such as house size, diverseness, operating expense and fiscal public presentation to order garnering nonsubjective informations.Next, the decision-making procedures are rather labyrinthine and likely related to extra factors which are non tested in this survey. Surveies are limited by a deficiency of other contextual factor. In this instance, future research should clear up the relationship between international PEU perceptual experience, entry manner scheme and ABC acceptance.Finally, a study attack enhances the foreign cogency of the findings, but for farther improved it should be better to carry on follow-up interviews if it been possible.6.8. DecisionActivity-based costing is the most of import accounting invention. It was developed for get the better ofing the merchandise cost deformation that caused by utilizing traditional costing system ( TCA ) , and research workers have agreed that ABC allocates overhead costs more accurately than TCA. In fact, the possible offered by the survey may good transcend the other accounting inventions.ABC has gained increasing public presentation and consciousness throughout the fabrication houses. Sing the benefits of ABC, empirical groundss show that ABC user increased net incomes and enhance organisational public presentation. In the current survey Logit analysis was used to prove the effects of several contextual factors on execution, acceptance and extract of ABC. These contextual factors were classified ad as technological, environmental, and organisational factors. Overall findings show the consequence of the technological factors ( e.g. , Information system quality, merchandises diverseness, and operating expense ) , on execution, acceptance and extract is marginally supported. The overall consequence of environmental factors ( e.g. , Uncertainty, competition, and scheme ) on these three plain positions of ABC is partly supported. Meanwhile, the overall consequence o f organisational factors ( e.g. , size, direction support, and preparation ) is ABC is partly supported. Furthermore, three fire consequence of this survey were The negative consequence of IT on acceptance ABC, The negative consequence of operating expense on extract ABC, and the positive consequence of uncertainty-financial on extract ABCFurthermore, this survey found the betterment of house s public presentation in the acceptance and extract phase of ABC. The primary focal point of this work is non to develop new theatrical processs to follow ABC system and brow a 7 phases model from other research worker, but to research how this theoretical account would work when the environment and the factors combination are changed.Three theoretical accounts were developed to capture the consequence of certain factors on different phases of ABC. Adoption theoretical account look into the influences of contextual factors when ABC is used on occasion, while in extract theoretical account, ABC is used extensively. Furthermore, ABC execution phases model effort to happen the different consequence of this contextual factors on different phases.This survey follows the theory that used by most of ABC acceptance research, which is called information systems ( IS ) invention theory. ABC is defined as a direction accounting invention, and it is considered as an administrative invention ( versus technological invention ) .This survey is an invention research, tried to explicate execution procedure by utilizing a factor-based attack ( versus a eventuality attack ) .This survey found grounds that perceived environment uncertainness ( PEU ) plays an of import function in execution, acceptance, and extract phase of ABC. It is besides of import to observe Iran face with in unpredictable environment. The findings suggest that under unsure conditions, director does non supply resources for implementing new invention system such as ABC. The consequences besides provide grounds on the fu nction ABC as an invention accounting systems to better fiscal and non fiscal public presentation.