Friday, November 29, 2019
How Diversity Essay How diversity affects police work? Traci Ann Fuchs August 16, 2013 SS 310 Cultural Diversity DR. Don Kirk Macon The role of the police is to enforce the law, not to question it. This means that the police have been used to do societys racial dirty workto return runaway slaves to their masters and to enforce segregation in the South. We have only to think of Southern sheriffs like Bull Connor to remind us of how the white power structure has fought to maintain its privileges. However, it also pays to remember that it is always easier to admit the sins of the past than it is to identify those of today. Few people today would defend a sheriff like Connor, but while there is widespread agreement today that racism is a serious problem, that consensus dwindles when people are asked to confirm specific examples. People will admit to the problem in general, but balk at attributing racist motives to any example that cuts too close to home. The police today must contend directly with a number of issues that carry a racial subtext both in fact and in perception: crime, drugs, disorder, civil unrest, and police brutality. While some can look at the same glass and call it half empty, while others call it half full, there is ample reason to suggest that even the most optimistic observers would agree that the police face a major challenge in this era of racial anxiety (Trojanowicz amp; Bucqueroux, 1991). The purpose of this paper will be to explore the dynamics of the racially charged issues that the police must deal with. It will also explore how and why a nationwide shift to Community Policing is essential if law enforcement is to face the challenge of promoting greater racial harmony as we are in the 21st century. We will write a custom essay sample on How Diversity specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on How Diversity specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on How Diversity specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer It will also contend that Community Policing helps ensure that the police are not misused again, as they have been in the past. Given the daily interaction between law enforcement officers and the diverse public, diversity training for law enforcement workers aids a better understanding of different types of people and their situations. Such education leads to better interaction. Those whose professional ideal is to protect and serve people equally from all backgrounds must face the challenges and complexities of a diverse society. A lack of communication effectiveness, coupled with little understanding of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ backgrounds, can result in inadvertent violation of individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights as well as officer safety and risk issues. Officers, even more than others, must ensure that their prejudices remain in check and that they refrain from acting on any biased thought. Although our nation has been enriched by diversity, many police procedures and interactions with citizens can be more complex because of diversity. Racial tensions and communication challenges with immigrants, for example, are bound to complicate some police encounters. It would be naive to preach to law enforcement officers, agents, and managers about the value of diversity when day-to-day activities can be complicated by diversity. At a minimum, a basic acceptance of diversity on the part of all criminal justice representatives is required as a precursor to improving interpersonal relations and contact across cultural, ethnic, and racial lines. (Robert M. Shusta, 2103) Law enforcement officers are affected by culture diversity each day as they patrol and interact with citizen within their jurisdictions. Communities depend on law enforcement for measures of security, safety and service. Some segments of communities have felt neglected or misunderstood by local law enforcement, leading to a lack of trust and a sense of insecurity. With this being the feeling of the community, contemporary law enforcement on the local, state, and federal level has changed immensely from the practices used by law enforcement in the past. Today law enforcement officers receive education and training far exceeding any training implemented in history. Training and education focuses on cultural diversity, religion, and effective communication. In addition, a demand for a more educated, professional, and level headed officer is sought-after by a system composed of rules, regulations, policies, procedures, and laws that if not followed can result inÃ due processÃ of law violations, loss of cases, civil litigations, and much more. These positive characteristics instilled in law enforcement officers alleviate behaviors considered unethical. Law enforcement officers educated in cultural diversity are less likely to apply bias, prejudice, and discrimination toward people of color, or ones sexual preference, gender, age, and religious and spiritual beliefs (Harley, 2008). Unfortunately, even with professionalism and equality at the top of law enforcement requirements individuals working within the criminal justice system are permitted discretionary powers that can be used in either a positive or negative manner. Law enforcement officers when encountering a situation can apply discretion based on personal, religious, and family beliefs. This, in return can be detrimental to the indigent and minority groups as ignorance appears to be a trait beneficial to an officer who engages in prejudice or discriminatory decision making. Unfair treatment, such as racial profiling, continues to be problem indigent and minorities encounter throughout the United States on a regular basis. Racial profiling has led to numerous civil litigations, and criminal charges filed against individual officers, departments, and states. Not all bad comes from a culturally diverse Nation and criminal justice system. Contemporary law enforcement is considered an equal opportunity employer and seeks out minority to work as professionals within the system. In addition, more minorities are attending college and receiving associates, bachelors, masters, and even doctoral degrees. Research proved by pairing law enforcement officers from different ethnic backgrounds community members are given the ability to witness firsthand different ethnic groups can, in fact coexist, and work together for the greater good of society. Moreover, in certain situations and under certain circumstances minority officers are better capable of understand and dealing with the actions of an individual from the same ethnic group than that of an officer from a different ethnicity. This in return can alleviate the possibility of verbal and physical confrontation between the citizen and law enforcement officer. Understanding different cultures can further alleviate civil litigation against the individual officer, department, and state as departments can create policies and procedures that assist offices when encountering minority. Diversity within a law enforcement department can create an atmosphere, in which individual officers are permitted to share creative ideas. These ideas can produce a more effective and organized police department (Harley, 2008). Community policing is a key feature that was used in the past and still is by law enforcement today. Officers concerned with and focus on obtaining good community policing skills are culturally diverse and realize establishing a rapport with members of society from the same culture and different culture is equally important. Community and law enforcement relations is crucial in more ways than not. A majority of investigations require the cooperation and assistance of community members for the successful detection and apprehension of criminal wrongdoers. Without the cooperation of community members, law enforcement is left without eye witnesses, testimony, and other assistance much needed to save valuable time, money, and resource. The job of law enforcement requires a certain level of comfort and professionalism in interacting with people from all backgrounds whether one is working with community members to build trust or dealing with suspects, victims, and coworkers. Through increased awareness, cultural knowledge, and skills, law enforcement as a profession can increase its cultural competence. Acquiring cultural competence is not an instantaneous process; it is multilayered and complex, and includes: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Exploration of officersÃ¢â¬â¢ belief systems and biases Ã¢â¬ ¢ Awareness of an officerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspectives and perceptions, especially as they may differ from those associated with minority viewpoints Ã¢â¬ ¢ Acquisition of cultural information relevant to the concerns of law enforcement, and the capacity to apply that knowledge in ethnic, racial, and other diverse communities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Increased communication skills leading to effective rapport building and communication with all community members Development of a set of principles, attitudes, policies, and structures that will enable all individuals in an organization to work effectively and equitably across all cultures and ethnicities. There are, of course, no guarantees that Community Policing can prevent civil disorders. But by reducing opportunities for police brutality and encouraging better relations betwee n people and their police, Community policing can reduce the threat. Obviously, Community Policing cannot solve all the underlying economic and social problems, that poor neighborhoods face. Community Officers also cannot close the income gap between whites and minorities, nor do they come to their beats bearing lists of high-paying jobs for unskilled workers. Community Officers also cannot undo the effects of past childhood abuse and neglect. They cannot single-handedly eradicate the scourge of substance abuse, domestic evidence, illiteracy, and poverty, though they may be able to do far more than their motor patrol counterparts. Yet even the most dedicated Community Officers cannot play both Mother and Father for all the children whose parents simply do not care. The strategies an individual uses to approach and build rapport with his or her own cultural group may result in unexpected difficulties with another group. The acts of approaching, communicating, questioning, assisting, and establishing trust with members of culturally diverse groups require special knowledge and skills that have nothing to do with the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"the law is the lawÃ¢â¬ and must be enforced equally. Acquiring knowledge and skills that lead to sensitivity does not imply preferential treatment of any one group; rather it contributes to improved communication with members of all groups. Robert M. Shusta, 2103) The American criminal justice system was based on the belief of providing equality to all individuals legal and illegal charged with a crime or suspected of committing a crime in the United States. Unfortunately, disparity and discrimination continues to occur from the time an individual of a low socioeconomic status or of color comes into contact with la w enforcement right through the entire stages of a trial, and into the correctional facility. Fortunately, with the increase in minority population the criminal justice system is witnessing a shift in balance. Even though whites still continue to dominate all aspects of the criminal justice system, minorities are entering the system at record speeds. Minorities employed in the system offer new ideas responsible for creating and implementing new policies, procedures, and laws. This in return, is creating a system open to culture and a Nation as highly developed and sophisticated as the United States cannot accept anything less. Harley, 2008) REFERENCES: Erickson, M. A. (2011, June 23). Changing TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Enforcement Culture to Face 21st-Century Threats. Retrieved from The Heritage foundation; leadship for America: http://www. heritage. org/research/reports/2011/06/changing-todays-law-enforcement-culture-to-face-21st-century-threats Harley, D. (2008). Rehabiitation Education. Social Justice and Cultural Diversiity Issues, 237-248. doi:EBSCOhost database Robert M. Shust a, D. R. (2103, July 23). Multicultural Law Enforcement: Strategies for Peacekeeping in a Diverse
Monday, November 25, 2019
Bitter Sugar essays Directed by LEON ICHASO filmed in 1996 in Dominican Republic, was born in Habana, Cuba, and moved to the United States at age 14 where he was raised in Miami and New York. In Cuba, his family was very well known in radio, TV, journalism and literature. His father, Dr. Justo Rodriguez Santos, is one of the centurys most respected Latin American poets and Ichaso chose to honor his fathers work by opening BITTER SUGAR with one of his poems. Leon Ichaso has directed films such as SUGAR HILL (1994) and CROSSOVER DREAMS (1985) that helped launch the film careers of Ruben Blades and Elizabeth Pena. The Cuban-born directors early work in advertising in New York led him to co-direct the award-winning film THE SUPER (1979), which won the Grand Prize at both the Biarritz and Manheim Film Festivals. The film was also selected into official competition at the Venice, Deauville, and Miami Film Festivals. Ichasos wide-ranging television credits include writing and producing film segments for Saturday Night Live (in 1975, 1980, 2000). He wrote and directed many episodes of the hit TV series Miami Vice (1985) and also directed the first six episodes of Michael Manns critically acclaimed series Crime Story (1986). He directed Table at Ciros for the Great Performances series on PBS (1987); The Fear Inside for Showtime, which earn him an Ace nomination for Best Director; and the highly praised adaptation of Charles Fullers Pulitzer Prize winner Zooman, which kicked-off Showtimes Anti-Violence Week in 1995. The main actors and actresses are: Ren Lavan as Gustavo Valdez, Mayte Villn as Yolanda, Miguel Gutirrez as Dr. Toms Valdez (Father of Gustavo), Larry Villanueva as Bobby (brother of Gustavo). Bitter Sugar presents a fascinating portrait of contemporary Cuba as a country of shatter...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Quantitative Nursing and Qualitative Critique - Essay Example In the light of those evidences the actual purpose of this study is to construct the diabetes self-management education program which uses co-created learning procedures considering the needs of persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (Funnell & Rogers, 2011). The program should be adaptive in fulfilling the gaps that have been observed in adhering diabetes self-management activates properly. The study purpose has been set to evaluate the DSME program performance at the end through qualitative research methodology. Research Questions The study inquires about the gaps in the diabetes self-management education, it examines, what are gaps in this program which have not yielded proper health care even after achieving knowledge about the program and how these gaps will help in organizing such activities that can make self-management an effective tool for health care. It examines, what are the needs and requirements of persons with type 2 DM. What are the effects and outcomes of this co -created program which have been examined through the qualitative factors of adaptation, program satisfaction and through the self-management activities? The qualitative methods such as focus group discussion and intervention, demographic analysis, knowledge about the program and self-care are sufficient enough to evaluate this co-created learning program. Gap analysis is an effective way of modifying and designing a new program which is not performing to its optimum potential because gap analysis help looking into the drawbacks and faults of prevailing methods and techniques. After analysis it enables the reader to redesign and reconstruct his own opinion and model. The worth mentioning aspect of this qualitative study is that the DSME program has used the co-created learning process... This paper approves that the study used co-creation learning process for participants in their DSME program which yielded significant results in proper self-management among parsons with type 2 DM. so, it is recommended that clinicians or nursing staff or professionals who have interaction with DSME education should prefer self-participation and self-involvement of their patients in identifying activities, barriers and possible solutions according to their desires and requirements. this essay makes a conclusion that this article of qualitative research has provided great deal of knowledge about the thinking patterns of humans as prescriptive methodologies have failed to teach the adherence of diabetes self-management education activities in practical but with the help of co-creation, such limitations have been transformed into strengths and yet the result of only self-managing activities are significant which states that the diabetes complications and problems can be resolved through self-motivation. This article provided extensive knowledge considering the nursing practice because clinical practitioners are usually unaware of this aspect of self-motivation and imply their prescribed opinions without considering the needs and desires of their patients. So, this analysis will help in future references of such events of non-compliance among patients. Qualitative research focuses on exploring issues, after identification it assumes understanding problem and then r esponding to the problem and finally the evaluation comes in line. This aspect of qualitative research will be useful in solving medical problems through qualitative measures in nursing practice.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Security and loss prevention - Essay Example Fijnaut (1995) attributes growth in private security to economically motivated reactions to increased criminal-related losses. The growth in many private business properties such as recreational parks and mega shopping malls led to an increase in special crime-related problems as noted by Shearing and Stenning (1983). The high increase in crime during this period resulted in many businesses incurring a lot of losses. This prompted the need to use private security to guard the businesses instead of relying state security that did not provide quick response to crime (Fijnaut, 1995). The recent growth in technology has also contributed to the increase in private security. This is due to the facts that new, advanced surveillance technologies could be used which was not the case in earlier times. The new technologies reduced the cost of security, which then stimulated demand for private security services that were (and still are) more cost effective. Fijnaut (1995) also notes that the growth was also attributed to the fact that many large companies in the eighties had economic drives, which led to slimming down of their secondary functions. These companies therefore decided to shift to the use of private security to replace the guards. Privatization of secondary functions by the governments also led to the growth in private security. In this case Fijnaut (1995) notes that government agencies like the prisons and police services began contracting elementary duties such as those of receptionists and access controls and transport to private security firms. In order to promote growth in private security, most governments in Europe introduced legislations regulating private security firms. In this case, private companies are required to fulfill certain requirements before they can be licensed. This is to ensure that individual guardsÃ¢â¬â¢ criminal records are checked as a selection procedure (Fijnaut, 1995). This enabled those
Monday, November 18, 2019
Scientific( Virology ) - Essay Example This antibody has proved essential in management of the virus development in succeptible children. To date, Ribavirin stands as the only accredited drug against the circus. Nevertheless, the applicability of this sophisticated drug has been subject to cost and toxicity constrains thus limiting its use. As a consequence, there remains an urgent need for research ventures aimed at developing more effective anti-RSV treatments. To fuse with the host cell, the virus uses glycoprotein F; therefore, this knowledge could be used in drug targeting to develop anti-protein F medications. Through research ventures, the first strain of the virus was harvested from the chimps respiratory channel, and has since been widely associated with infants and newly born babies. Notably though, the virus lacks age specificity with its incedences being noted among adult humans. Currently, it is estimated that the disease causes approximately 34 million infections of the lower respiratory tract among children. Out of these, an approximate 10% often require hospitalization to recover. Sadly, up to 7% of the hospitalised children end up losing their battle against the virus, with fatality rates in developed states accounting for just 1% of the total. While world health systems are continuously laying foundations in attempts to develop an ideal vaccine and medication against the infection, this has faced many hurdles. In the end, the world remains stuck with Palivizumab as the only humanized antibody compliant to the guidelines of the Food and Drugs Authority. This artificially articulated MAb targets the virus by identifying its antigenic F-protein and mounting immunological response against the virus. On the other hand, the virus can be managed through transcription arrest in this RNA-virus, an approach that has been exploited in the designing of Ribavirin. However, such RNA targeting drugs are highly costly to produce,, while others
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Project Construction Management Plan Dear VU Pty. Ltd., RE: Construction Management Services I refer to your advertisement regarding the delivery of construction management services, as tendered online on 8th March 2017 and thus desire to express our interest in executing the expected objectives of the project. Best builders and management services had been established in the year 2005 and for the past 12 years, we have been basically engaged in managing and delivering projects. Our familiarity with your preferences and objectives is totally unparalleled thus making Best builders and management services team an immediate asset to the VU Development complex project. The experience, expertise and competency of Best builders and management services will indefinitely ensure a successful project termination which will undoubtedly be executed within the prescribed budget and time period. Below mentioned are our prime strengths that perfectly favor your proposed project: Sound knowledge and strong track record of planning, initiating and executing projects within the prescribed budget and time Diverse experience in the development of high rise buildings The same project team has been working on similar kind of projects since the establishment of Best builders and management services Team coordination and mutual understanding of individual roles and responsibilities in delivering a successful project We as a team are pretty confident that the quality of our experienced professional staff will indefinitely lead to VU development complex project a success. And hence, we all are excited about the opportunity to work with your organization for the execution of this project. I thus look forward to discuss this with you further. Yours sincerely, Glenn Maxwell Project Director Best Builders and management services 1. Introduction of our firm Best Builders management services is privately owned professional firm providing design, construction and management services. The firm was established in 2002 in Melbourne CBD with a view to take after the most elevated proficient norms. Regardless of whether a venture is expansive or little the experts at BBMS work with the steadiness and responsibility to fulfill customer needs with the mix of involvement, expert aptitudes and the innovative use of ideas. Our operation started in 2005 with the motivation behind giving assortment of services on request of its first significant client. We have been included in outline and development of numerous medium ascend and elevated structures in Melbourne. With more than 25 profoundly devoted lasting staffs and different partners give an incorporated way to deal with multidisciplinary designing and construction projects. 1.1 Capability BBMS has a reputation of over 12 years in the field of building design, construction and management services for local and worldwide projects. We have offices and extensive building assets and experience to give point by point designing outline, development and consultancy administrations for compositional, basic, electrical, mechanical and sterile designing plan. Our dedication and diligent work to rehearse imaginative strategies has helped BBMS to set new guidelines and values. We have highly qualified groups of designers, engineers, construction teams, project and risk managers. At BBMS the hard-working attitude is alive. The experts drew in here are completely devoted to give the absolute best yield at least conceivable cost. Best builders and management services has undertaken many large scale and challenging projects in the past years which gives us the confidence to undertake your proposed project. Relevant services, Best builders and management services has been involved with: 1.2 Past successful projects Assignment name: Construction of 35 Spring street Country: Australia Location: Melbourne Address: 35 Springs Street Melbourne VIC 3000 Professional Staff Provided: Architects, Structural Engineers, Civil Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Sanitary Engineers and HVAC Engineers Number of staff: 17 Client: Colliers International Start Date: March 2014 Finish Date: February 2017 Duration: 35 months Name of Senior Staff: Romil Team Leader / Civil engineer, Construction manager (28 years industry experience) Shreysha Head of Architecture (25 years industry experience) Vani Sanitary Coordinator (23 years industry experience) Simar HVAC Designer (20 years industry experience) Estefania Senior Structural Engineer, Construction manager (24 years industry experience) Jack Senior Electrical Engineer (20 years industry experience) Description of Project: The project is the construction of the 35 Spring street apartment building. The Complex is 45 stories high (166m), with a construction budget of $350,000,000 with a 35 month build time Assignment name: The construction of Vision Apartments Country: Australia Location: Melbourne Address: 500 Elizabeth street Melbourne VIC 3000 Professional Staff Provided: Architects, Structural Engineers, Civil Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Sanitary Engineers and HVAC Engineers Number of staff: 25 Client: Visions Apartments Start Date: September 2010 Finish Date: December 2013 Duration: 39 Months Name of Senior Staff: Romil Team Leader / Civil engineer, Construction manager (28 years industry experience) Shreysha Head of Architecture (25 years industry experience) Vani Sanitary Coordinator (23 years industry experience) Simar HVAC Designer (20 years industry experience) Estefania Senior Structural Engineer, Construction manager (24 years industry experience) Jack Senior Electrical Engineer (20 years industry experience) Description of Project: The project is the construction of the Visions Apartments complex in Melbourne. The structure is 69 stories high (223m) and has a construction budget of $500,000,000 with a construction time of 39 months Assignment name: Construction of Optus Centre Melbourne Country: Australia Location: Melbourne Address:367 Collins street Melbourne VIC 3000 Professional Staff Provided:Structural Engineers, Civil Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Sanitary Engineers and HVAC Engineers Number of staff: 14 Client: Optus Start Date: April 2011 Finish Date:September 2013 Duration: 30 Months Name of Senior Staff: Romil Team Leader / Civil engineer, Construction manager (28 years industry experience) Shreysha Head of Architecture (25 years industry experience) Vani Sanitary Coordinator (23 years industry experience) Simar HVAC Designer (20 years industry experience) Estefania Senior Structural Engineer, Construction manager (24 years industry experience) Jack Senior Electrical Engineer (20 years industry experience) Description of Project: This project consists of the construction of the Optus centre in Melbourne. The structure is 34 stories and has a budget of $300,000,000 with a construction time of 30 months. Assignment name: Construction of The International Tower 1, NSW, Sydney Country: Australia Location: New South Wales Address: 200, Barangaroo Avenue, Sydney NSW 200 Professional Staff Provided: Architects, Structural Engineers, Civil Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Sanitary Engineers and HVAC Engineers Number of staff: 13 Client: ITS development Start Date: 2016 Finish Date: 2012 Duration: 40 months Name of Senior Staff: Romil Team Leader / Civil engineer, Construction manager (28 years industry experience) Shreysha Head of Architecture (25 years industry experience) Vani Sanitary Coordinator (23 years industry experience) Simar HVAC Designer (20 years industry experience) Estefania Senior Structural Engineer, Construction manager (24 years industry experience) Jack Senior Electrical Engineer (20 years industry experience) Description of Project: The project is the construction of the International Tower 01 office and residential building. The Complex is 49 stories high (712f), with a construction budget of $49,000,000 with a 40 month build time Assignment name: Construction of Freshwater place North Melbourne Country: Australia Location: Melbourne Address:1 Queens Bridge Square Melbourne VIC 3000 Professional Staff Provided: Structural Engineers, Civil Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Sanitary Engineers and HVAC Engineers Number of staff: 16 Client: Freshwater Place apartments Start Date: 2002 Finish Date: 2005 Duration: 36 Months Name of Senior Staff: Romil Team Leader / Civil engineer, Construction manager (28 years industry experience) Shreysha Head of Architecture (25 years industry experience) Vani Sanitary Coordinator (23 years industry experience) Simar HVAC Designer (20 years industry experience) Estefania Senior Structural Engineer, Construction manager (24 years industry experience) Jack Senior Electrical Engineer (20 years industry experience) Description of Project: This project consists of the construction of the Freshwater Place apartments in North Melbourne. The structure is 63 (673f) stories and has a budget of $295,000,000 with a construction time of 38 months. 1.3 Project objectives Deliver a successful and profitable project Prepare complete design for the proposed construction work Prepare cost estimate and review the viability and feasibility of these works in terms of cost, time and quality Carry out complete construction supervision during construction stage Ensure that the work is carried out in a timely manner Ensure that the project is implemented in accordance with the conditions of the contract Ensure that the cost of construction is controlled without exceeding the allocated budget Prepare monthly reports regarding the progress of the works and the conditions of site, investigate the obstacles and recommend practical remedies. 2. Project description: The proposed VU development complex is to be constructed in the CBD area of Melbourne. The site is located at 364 and 372 Lt Lonsdale St. Currently, both sites (364 and 372 Lt Lonsdale St) are occupied with single and double storied vacant buildings made up of bricks. The site of the proposed building is bounded by roads and properties on four sides. A road runs between existing site marking the boundary for 364 and 372 Lt Lonsdale St on the eastern and western side respectively. The shape of the site is regular and the area is about approx. 1935 m2 including the dividing roads. 32 storied complex has been proposed on the site for office use. The conceptual design consists of 4 basements for parking and numbers of plant rooms required for the complex. Ground floor is designed for retail purpose. The street level floors will be fully landscaped and will have limited area of retail and entertainment areas. The cost of the building is estimated to be around $120 million including financial charges and cost escalation. The total development period is 30 months including three phases (design, permits and construction). ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO BE ADOPTED WHILE EXECUTION Construction management plan Construction supervision and management aims at the accomplishment of the construction as per the contract agreement. Construction work can be imagined to be having two parts, namely manpower and material mobilization It basically consists in the provision of a competent team of supervisors who can for see the requirement of a particular quantity of the material and manpower in the different stages of the works The list of jobs to be done are as follows Quality assurance and timely performance of the works Check and approve time and construction schedule, drawings, data and samples submitted by contractor Maintains accounts of construction Inform the management at a specific period on the status of the project in terms of cost, time and performance (daily reports, monthly progress report, site meetings report and final reports). Preparation of project completion report Project handover Final acceptance certificate Quality assurance procedures We have proposed a team of experts with highest professional skills in order to maintain the quality works of the project. The design and drawings will be carried out as per the relevant codes. Final drawings of design and detailing will be freeze prior to the initiation of the construction phase. Preparation of cost estimate, bill of quantity and specifications will be done by experienced professional and will further be checked by senior personnel. Specification will specify the constructions methodology and details of materials to be used in the project to avoid low quality materials and poor workmanship. Risk management plan In the construction industry, every project is prone to some risks that affects the work progress. In order to avoid its impact, risk should be identified and manage beforehand to achieve the project objectives in terms of cost, time and quality. Our company has gained experience in mitigating the risks and delivering the past projects successfully. For VU development complex we will identify, analyze, evaluate and prepare a mitigation plan according to the standards (IEC/ISO 31000:2009). Communication management plan To carry out the project in an effective manner a proper system of information will be developed to avoid miscommunication between Client and the consultants. It will keep the parties up-to-date regarding the work progress. In order to complete the proposed project successfully within the stipulate time frame, extensive interaction will be carried out with the client. Health and safety plans Management is determined to implement safety in all activities on site and action to eliminate risks related with health and welfare of the stakeholders. We will provide a safe working environment, facilities for the welfare of workers, information, instruction, training and supervision necessary to ensure the safety of workers from injury and health risks We will improve our performance through effective safety management Each worker has to follow safe work practice to avoid injury to themselves, others as well as plants and equipment. FEES PROPOSAL: Project Managers And other Personnel Fee per hour Rate per year Total Fees Personnel Assignment % Construction Manager $179 $483K $1.2M 18% Project Director $140 $378K $945K 14% Structural engineer $120 $324K $810K 12% Sanitary coordinator $111 $299K $747K 11% HVAC designer $103 $278k $695K 11% Senior civil engineer $118 $318K $795K 12% Senior electrical engineer $109 $294k $735K 11% External consultants x 4 $100 $270k $675K 10% Total Fee Proposal $6.6M 100% Deliverable Acceptance Criteria Project definition and detailed schedule Our definition of the project must align with customers task brief Permits to be approved (VIC government, Melbourne city council, traffic management, demolition, environmental) All permits are approved Cost model estimates for hired labour All costs have been assessed and approved Risk management evaluation All risks have been assessed and a risk management plan has been commissioned Procurement costs (Steel, hardware etc.) All costs have been assessed and approved Consultation with stakeholders who may affect the project All concerns of the stakeholders have been addressed before the project begins Project management plan (PMP) The PMP must describe what the project will do, as well as how and when it will be done Status reporting The status of the project is compared to planned deadlines Execution phase Each construction period is executed and signed off Project closure Once the project has been successfully completed DELIVERABLES: Appendices Roles and Responsibilities Designation Responsibilities Chief Operating Officer-CEO Executing BBMSs vision and mission Working with investors and sponsors Quality Assurance / Quality Control Division Stating quality control procedures Supervising quality inspections General Manager-GM Handling projects at the state level Supervision of Construction Managers on different projects Account and Finance Department Managing all Financial aspects Audits Implementing cost control Prepare financial reports Safety Committee Analysing and Implementing safety on sites Define safety procedures Safety training Construction Manager- CM Accountable for all field activities Supervising overall project Outlining construction methods Procurement Manager Preparation of all contractual documents Administration and control of contracts Project Manager- PM Project planning, monitoring and controlling Collaborate with client representative for any changes in action plan Managing activities with time, cost and quality constraints Curriculum vitae ESTEFANIA VELASQUEZ GONZALEZ Civil Engineer Best Builders and Management Services L18, 242 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 www.bbms.com.au Education Victoria University-Master of Project Management 2003 Victoria University University-Bachelor of Civil Engineering 1997 Recent Projects Senior Structural Engineer, Construction manager 35 Spring St Building (2014-2017) Melbourne, Australia The International Tower 1 (2012-2016) Sydney, Australia Vision Apartments (2010-2013) Melbourne, Australia Optus Centre (2011-2013) Melbourne, Australia Fresh Water Place (2002-2005) Melbourne, Australia SIMARJOT SINGH Mechanical Engineer Best Builders and Management Services L18, 242 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 www.bbms.com.au Education Victoria University-Master of Project Management 2003 Victoria University-Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering 2000 Recent Project HVAC Designer 35 Spring St Building (2014-2017) Melbourne, Australia The International Tower 1 (2012-2016) Sydney, Australia Vision Apartments (2010-2013) Melbourne, Australia Optus Centre (2011-2013) Melbourne, Australia Fresh Water Place (2002-2005) Melbourne, Australia KALEIVANI GOVINDA GOUNDEN Electrical Engineer Best Builders and Management Services L18, 242 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 www.bbms.com.au Education RMIT University-Master of Project Management 2002 Bachelor of Electrical Engineering and Automation 1999 Recent Project Sanitary Coordinator 35 Spring St Building (2014-2017) Melbourne, Australia The International Tower 1 (2012-2016) Sydney, Australia Vision Apartments (2010-2013) Melbourne, Australia Optus Centre (2011-2013) Melbourne, Australia Fresh Water Place (2002-2005) Melbourne, Australia ROMIL MISTRY Civil Engineer Best Builders and Management Services L18, 242 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 www.bbms.com.au Education Victoria University-Master of Construction Management 2002 Victoria University University-Bachelor of Civil Engineering 1996 Recent Project Civil engineer, Construction manager 35 Spring St Building (2014-2017) Melbourne, Australia The International Tower 1 (2012-2016) Sydney, Australia Vision Apartments (2010-2013) Melbourne, Australia Optus Centre (2011-2013) Melbourne, Australia Fresh Water Place (2002-2005) Melbourne, Australia SHREYSHA SHRESTHA Architect Best Builders and Management Services L18, 242 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 www.bbms.com.au Education Victoria University-Master of Project Management-2003 Bachelor of Architecture-2000 Recent Project Head of Architecture 35 Spring St Building (2014-2017) Melbourne, Australia The International Tower 1 (2012-2016) Sydney, Australia Vision Apartments (2010-2013) Melbourne, Australia Optus Centre (2011-2013) Melbourne, Australia Fresh Water Place (2002-2005) Melbourne, Australia JACK FRANCIS HICKEY Electrical Engineer Best Builders and Management Services L18, 242 Exhibition Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 www.bbms.com.au Education Victoria University-Master of Construction Management 2003 Victoria University-Bachelor of Electrical Engineer 2000 Recent Project Senior Electrical Engineer 35 Spring St Building (2014-2017) Melbourne, Australia The International Tower 1 (2012-2016) Sydney, Australia Vision Apartments (2010-2013) Melbourne, Australia Optus Centre (2011-2013) Melbourne, Australia Fresh Water Place (2002-2005) Melbourne, Australia
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Advertising and Promotion Advertising is a collective term for public announcements designed to promote the sale of specific commodities or services. Advertising is a form of mass selling, employed when the use of direct, person-to-person selling is impractical, impossible, or simply inefficient. It is to be distinguished from other activities intended to persuade the public, such as propaganda, publicity, and public relations. Advertising techniques range in complexity from the publishing of simple, straightforward notices in the classified-advertising columns of newspapers to the concerted use of newspapers, magazines, television, radio, direct mail, and other communications media in the course of a single advertising campaign. From its unsophisticated beginnings in ancient times, advertising has burgeoned into a worldwide industry. My aims of advertising are: ÃË Inform people about the product ÃË Create a image ÃË Increase sales ÃË Compete with other shops ÃË Introduce in products into the market Informative advertising Currently in the biggest spender on this form of advertising, is the government this advertising is used to pass on information to the public. The passing on of this information is very important in any advert. In my case when deciding how to advertise I can even use this method as to inform about my newsagents shop and where about its situated etc. Persuasive advertising The washing power industry spends as much as the government on advertising, their adverts try to persuade the viewer that their products are much better then the compensation. Their goal is to attract p... ... Budget A budget is a forecast of the profit my business expects to generate in the first year. It sets targets for income and expenditure during the period. Estimates are made of the anticipated income that my business will receive from selling its product, and its expenditure on items such as raw materials, personal costs, advertising, power, transport and administration. My Budget Key Posters = 15p per poster if done by myself, or 40p per poster if produced by specialists (in colour). Leaflets = 15p per poster if done by myself, or 40p per poster if produced by specialists (in colour). Internet Website = A professional 2 page website starts at Ã £350 + VAT including website design (including graphics), domain name and 1st year's web hosting. This service is offered by a popular company "ECWEBS".
Monday, November 11, 2019
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS GCE Advanced Subsidiary Level and GCE Advanced Level MARK SCHEME for the May/June 2009 question paper for the guidance of teachers 9691 COMPUTING 9691/01 Paper 1 (Written Paper 1), maximum raw mark 90 This mark scheme is published as an aid to teachers and candidates, to indicate the requirements of the examination. It shows the basis on which Examiners were instructed to award marks. It does not indicate the details of the discussions that took place at an ExaminersÃ¢â¬â¢ meeting before marking began, which would have considered the acceptability of alternative answers. Mark schemes must be read in conjunction with the question papers and the report on the examination. Ã¢â¬ ¢ CIE will not enter into discussions or correspondence in connection with these mark schemes. CIE is publishing the mark schemes for the May/June 2009 question papers for most IGCSE, GCE Advanced Level and Advanced Subsidiary Level syllabuses and some Ordinary Level syllabuses. Page 2 1 (a) Mark Scheme: TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ version GCE A/AS LEVEL Ã¢â¬â May/June 2009 Syllabus 9691 Paper 01 (i) To allow the user to give the computer data/change data into computer understandable form (ii) To allow the computer to give information/communicate with the computer/to change information from computer into human understandable form (iii) To keep data while the computer is not using it (1 per dotty)  (b) -Black and white laser -e. g. Use in office to produce letters -Produces high quality/speedy so does not develop large queue on a LAN -Colour laser -e. g. To produce reports for a meeting -High quality outputs/can produce large quantity quickly -Dot Matrix Ã¢â¬â e. g. Print receipts at checkout/tickets on railway -Produces more than one copy at a time, one for customer + one for shop -Inkjet -e. g. Doing homework at home -Relatively cheap and slowness does not matter -Plotter -e. g. Produce architectÃ¢â¬â¢s plans -Precision drawing tool -Braille printer -Producing documents/books for blind people -Outputs physical/3D form of data (3 per type, max 3 types, max 9) 2 (a) (i) Name: Text/String/alpha/alphanumeric Description: Text/String/alpha/alphanumeric Cost: Currency/integer/real/float Whether: Boolean Number: Integer (1 for first three, 1 for last 2) (ii) Field Sizes: 10 50 4 1 1 66 Ã¢â¬â 50 Ã¢â¬â 250 Ã¢â¬â 8 Ã¢â¬â 4 Ã¢â¬â 313 bytes (1)   Total (1) for showing that the field sizes should be added up Multiply Total by 1000 (1) = 66000 to 313000 bytes Add extra (10%) for overheads (1) = 72600 to 344300 bytes Convert to sensible unit (? 024) (1) = 70. 9Kb to 344. 3Kb. (5 possible mark points, max 4)  Ã © UCLES 2009 Page 3 Mark Scheme: TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ version GCE A/AS LEVEL Ã¢â¬â May/June 2009 Syllabus 9691 Paper 01 (b) Advantage: -Processed/Searched more easily/quickly/Estimate of file size is easier -e. g. When a customer wants to kn ow the availability of an item the record can be found quickly/makes selection of storage easier Disadvantage: -The size of fields must be determined before use so space is often wasted/not sufficient -e. g. The Ã¢â¬Å"descriptionÃ¢â¬ field may not be large enough for a particular item. 1 per -, max 4)  3 -Working from home -Fewer journeys/more free time/less supervisionÃ¢â¬ ¦ -Different types of jobs/jobs lost/job opportunities arising -Production line/manual jobs being lost/replaced by more technical jobs -Work done can be more visible to managers -All work/times working can be seen/leading to rewards where appropriate/sanctions when poor effort -Safety of workers is improved -Computers/robots do dangerous tasks/can be used to accurately monitor dangerous processes -Work time can be less rigid -Work can be fitted in round other commitments/leads to simpler ways of job sharing -The 24 hour job/office/commitment/world workforce -Workers may always be contactable/throughout th e world/communications. (Up to 2 per group, max 3 groups, max 6)  (a) Line X A OUTPUT CONDITION 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1,1 5 2 1 6 2 1 TRUE 3 2 4 4 2 4 2,4 5 3 4 6 3 4 FALSE 7 3 4 (1 for values of X and matching line numbers; 1 for values of A corresponding to values of X; 1 for giving correct outputs; 1 for giving 2 conditions)  (b) (i) Change X = 3 to X = 11 (ii) -A first line to allow user to input value (N) -UNTIL X = (N + 1)   4 Ã © UCLES 2009 Page 4 (c) e. g. Mark Scheme: TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ version GCE A/AS LEVEL Ã¢â¬â May/June 2009 Syllabus 9691 Paper 01 X=5 REPEAT A=X*X OUTPUT X, A X=X+5 UNTIL X = 25 END Mark points: -Begins with 5 (as first output) -Loop with working condition -Counter correctly incremented 5 (a) (i) -Options appear on screen from which to select -Selection may lead to submenus -Menus arranged in a tree structure (from single root to many branches) Use: In a passive information system e. g. Tourist guide at a train station. (1 for use, + 2 other -, max 3)   (ii) -Follows a spoken language allowing user to input queries in normal vocabulary/syntax -Computer understands keywords/positions in sentence to get idea of syntax -Will then search database for keyword to provide output or responses. Use: e. g. On an expert system or search engine. 1 for use, + 2 other -, max 3)  (b) -Provides utility programs to allow user to carry out maintenance tasks (any 3) -Provides security measures like passwords and identifications. -Controls the hardware and the operations they allow. -Provides translators to convert softwa re into a form useable by the computer. -Manages interrupts. -To provide a platform for the execution of software (1 per -, max 3) 6 (a) (i) Data is transmitted along a single wire/one bit at a time. (ii) Data is transmitted along a number of wires/one byte (or more) at a time. (iii) Data can only be transmitted in a single direction. (iv) Data can be transmitted in both directions but only one at a time. (b) (i) -Each byte contains an even number of 1Ã¢â¬â¢s -A special bit is set to 0 or 1 to ensure that total is even. Byte is checked for even number of 1Ã¢â¬â¢s after transmission. (1 per -, max 2) (ii) -When two bits are in error the errors cancel each other out/10101001.        Ã © UCLES 2009 Page 5 7 Mark Scheme: TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ version GCE A/AS LEVEL Ã¢â¬â May/June 2009 Syllabus 9691 Paper 01 -Data collected on site/by drilling /observation/explosions -Data collected remotely/by satellite/by electronic means -Collected data input to system via HCI/ automatically -Data input is compared to library of data to find matchesÃ¢â¬ ¦ -by inference engineÃ¢â¬ ¦ -Using rules found in rule base -Decisions made about geologic structure reported through HCI. (1 per -, max 4)  8 a) -Site map -a diagram showing the way the different screens fit together -shows the links between screens, -Gantt chart/progress chart -shows the different parts that need to be developed -shows which parts of the development are independent and which are reliant on each other. -Spider diagram -to show interaction between the different elements of the solution -and those parts which are independent of each other. -Flow diagram -to show the order of producing the parts of the solution -or to show the flow through the proposed site. (Up to 2 groups, up to 2 per group, max 4)  (b) -Documentation for owner of site -will be paper based -will contain instructions for changing/maintaining site -Documentation for viewer/visitor to site -will be on-screen -giving d etailed help on searches/use of facilities/communication with site ownerÃ¢â¬ ¦  9 -Sound -Music to accompany the pictures/speech to explain the picturesÃ¢â¬ ¦. Video/animation -Moving pictures to better describe the object on the site -Automatic hard copy/saving -Automatic downloading of data to printer/hard drive for future reference. -Hyperlinks -Allowing access to different sites/parts of site (Up to 2 groups, up to 2 per group, max 4)  10 Colour: -Contrast -Corporate schemes -Aggressive/passive/soothing colour schemes -Consistency over site to make site look cohesive -Use colour to provide emphasis -Accessability issues e. g. colour blindness Ã © UCLES 2009 Page 6 Mark Scheme: TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ version GCE A/AS LEVEL Ã¢â¬â May/June 2009 Syllabus 9691 Paper 01 Layout: -Consistent layout so user gets used to Ã¢â¬Ëwhat is whereÃ¢â¬â¢. Important things to top and left -Data spread out across whole screen -Tab order -Group similar data together Content: -Limit to amoun t of content on a page -Content on a page is cohesive -Content matches the published intentions of the site -Content is of sensible type and reading age for audience. (1 per -, max 2 per group, max 6)  11 -The bit rate is a measure of the rate that data can be sent across the communication medium -Different communication media have different bit rates -For simple text/still picturesÃ¢â¬ ¦a low bit rate connection is adequate -because volume of data per page is low and fixed -For (live) video/soundÃ¢â¬ ¦bit rate needs to be high -because large volume of data which must be downloaded in real time becauseÃ¢â¬ ¦ -information is time sensitive. 1 per -, max 4)  12 (a) (i) -Custom written software is especially written/according to the requirements of the customer -Off the shelf is readily available/needs tailoring to the needs of the customer  (ii) -no delay as it is ready immediately -No shortage of experienced users/ready trained/No learning curve -Software should be error free -Help available through Internet/colleagues/courses -Compatible with other users/software (1 per -, max 2) (b) (i) -Check data input to ensure it matches source data -Typed in twiceÃ¢â¬ ¦ -by different people/at different times -inputs checked against each other for errors -manual check by comparingÃ¢â¬ ¦ -screen output of input with original document. (1 for first -, + any 2 other -, max 3) (ii) -Check data input is sensible/follows set rules/are reasonable -Data type/should be numeric -Data format/should be in currency form/xxx. xx -Length check/input should be < x characters -Presence check/something has been input. -Range check/value between 0 and some upper limit (1 for first -, + any 2 other -, max 3)    Ã © UCLES 2009
Friday, November 8, 2019
Biography of Pancho Villa The Centaur of the North Pancho Villa (1878-1923) was a Mexican bandit, warlord and revolutionary. One of the most important figures of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920), he was a fearless fighter, clever military commander and important power broker during the years of conflict. His vaunted Division of the North was, at one time, the strongest army in Mexico and he was instrumental in the downfall of both Porfirio DÃ az and Victoriano Huerta. When the alliance of Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro ObregÃ ³n finally defeated him, he responded by waging a guerrilla war which included an attack on Columbus, New Mexico. He was assassinated in 1923. Early Years Pancho Villa was born Doroteo Arango to a family of impoverished sharecroppers who worked land belonging to the wealthy and powerful LÃ ³pez Negrete family in the state of Durango. According to legend, when young Doroteo caught one of the LÃ ³pez Negrete clan trying to rape his sister Martina, he shot him in the foot and fled to the mountains. There he joined a band of outlaws and soon rose to a position of leadership through his bravery and ruthlessness. He earned good money as a bandit and gave some if it back to the poor, which earned him a reputation as a sort of Robin Hood. Revolution Breaks Out The Mexican Revolution broke out in 1910 when Francisco I. Madero, who had lost a crooked election to dictator Porfirio DÃ az, declared himself president and called for the people of Mexico to take up arms. Arango, who had changed his name to Pancho Villa (after his grandfather) by then, was one who answered the call. He brought his bandit force with him and soon became one of the most powerful men in the north as his army swelled. When Madero returned to Mexico from exile in the United States in 1911, Villa was the one who welcomed him. Villa knew he was no politician but he saw promise in Madero and vowed to take him to Mexico City. The Campaign Against DÃ az The corrupt regime of Porfirio DÃ az was still entrenched in power, however. Villa soon gathered an army around him, including an elite cavalry unit. Around this time he earned the nickname Ã¢â¬Å"the Centaur of the NorthÃ¢â¬ because of his riding skill. Along with fellow warlord Pascual Orozco, Villa controlled the north of Mexico, defeating federal garrisons and capturing towns. DÃ az might have been able to handle Villa and Orozco, but he also had to worry about the guerrilla forces of Emiliano Zapata in the south, and before too long it was evident that DÃ az could not defeat the enemies arrayed against him. He left the country in April of 1911, and Madero entered the capital in June, triumphant. In Defense of Madero Once in office, Madero quickly got into trouble. Remnants of the DÃ az regime despised him, and he alienated his allies by not honoring his promises to them. Two key allies he turned against him were Zapata, who was disappointed to see that Madero had little interest in land reform, and Orozco, who had hoped in vain that Madero would give him a lucrative post, such as state governor. When these two men once again took up arms, Madero called on Villa, his only remaining ally. Along with General Victoriano Huerta, Villa fought and defeated Orozco, who was forced into exile in the United States. Madero could not see those enemies closest to him, however, and Huerta, once back in Mexico City, betrayed Madero, arrested him and ordered him executed before setting himself up as president. Campaign Against Huerta Villa had believed in Madero and was devastated by his death. He quickly joined an alliance of Zapata and revolution newcomers Venustiano Carranza and Alvaro ObregÃ ³n dedicated to removing Huerta. By then, Villas Division of the North was the most powerful and feared military unit in the nation and his soldiers numbered in the tens of thousands. Huerta was surrounded and outnumbered, even though Orozco had returned and joined him, bringing his army with him. Villa led the fight against Huerta, defeating federal forces in cities all over northern Mexico. Carranza, a former governor, named himself Chief of the Revolution, which irritated Villa although he accepted it. Villa did not want to be president, but he did not like Carranza. Villa saw him as another Porfirio DÃ az and wanted someone else to lead Mexico once Huerta was out of the picture. In May of 1914, the way was clear for an attack on the strategic town of Zacatecas, where there was a major railway junction that could carry the revolutionaries right into Mexico City. Villa attacked Zacatecas on June 23. The Battle of Zacatecas was a huge military victory for Villa: barely a few hundred out of 12,000 federal soldiers survived. After the loss at Zacatecas, Huerta knew his cause was lost and tried to surrender to gain some concessions, but the allies would not let him off the hook so easily. Huerta was forced to flee, naming an interim president to rule until Villa, ObregÃ ³n, and Carranza reached Mexico City. Villa Versus Carranza With Huerta gone, hostilities between Villa and Carranza broke out almost immediately. A number of delegates from the leading figures of the revolution got together at the Convention of Aguascalientes in October of 1914, but the interim government put together at the convention did not last and the country was once again embroiledÃ in a civil war. Zapata remained holed up in Morelos, only fighting those who ventured onto his turf, and ObregÃ ³n decided to support Carranza, mostly because he felt Villa was a loose cannon and Carranza was the lesser of two evils. Carranza set himself up asÃ President of MexicoÃ until elections could take place and sent ObregÃ ³n and his army after the rebellious Villa. At first, Villa and his generals, such asÃ Felipe Angeles, scored decisive victories against Carranza. But in April, ObregÃ ³n brought his army north and lured Villa into a fight.Ã The Battle of Celaya took place from April 6-15, 1915 and was a huge victory for ObregÃ ³n. Villa limped away but ObregÃ ³n chased him and the two fought at the Battle of Trinidad (April 29-June 5, 1915). Trinidad was another huge loss for Villa and the once-mighty Division of the North was in tatters. In October, Villa crossed the mountains into Sonora, where he hoped to defeat Carranzas forces and regroup. During the crossing, Villa lost Rodolfo Fierro, his most loyalÃ officer, and cruel hatchet man. Carranza had reinforced Sonora, however, and Villa was defeated. He was forced to cross back into Chihuahua with what was left of his army. By December, it was evident to Villas officers that ObregÃ ³n and Carranza had won: most of the Division of the North accepted an offer of amnesty and switched sides. Villa himself headed into the mountains with 200 men, determined to keep fighting. The Guerrilla Campaign and the Attack on Columbus Villa had officially gone rogue. His army down to a couple of hundred men, he resorted to banditry to keep his men supplied with food and ammunition. Villa became increasinglyÃ erratic and blamed the Americans for his losses in Sonora. He detestedÃ Woodrow WilsonÃ for recognizing the Carranza government and began harassing any and all Americans that crossed his path. On the morning of March 9, 1916, Villa attacked Columbus, New Mexico, with 400 men. The plan was to defeat the small garrison and make off with weapons and ammunition as well as to rob the bank and get revenge on one Sam Ravel, an American arms dealer who had once double-crossed Villa and a Columbus resident. The attack failed on every level: the American garrison was much stronger than Villa had suspected, the bank went unrobbed, and Sam Ravel had gone to El Paso. Still, the fame Villa gained by having the guts to attack a town in the United States gave him a new lease on life. Recruits once again joined his army and word of his deedsÃ wasÃ spread far and wide, often romanticized in song. The Americans sentÃ General Jack PershingÃ into Mexico after Villa. On March 15, he took 5,000 American soldiers across the border. This action became known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Punitive ExpeditionÃ¢â¬ and it was a fiasco. Finding the elusive Villa proved next to impossible and logistics were a nightmare. Villa was wounded in a skirmish in late March and spent two months recovering alone in a hidden cave: he dispersed his men into small squads and told them to fight on while he healed. When he came out, many of his men had been killed, including some of his best officers. Undaunted, he took again to the hills, fighting both the Americans and Carranzas forces. In June, there was a confrontation between Carranzas forces and the Americans just south of Ciudad Jurez. Cool heads prevented another war between Mexico and the United States, but it was clear that it was time for Pershing to leave. By early 1917 all American forces had left Mexico, and Villa was still at large. After Carranza Villa remained in the hills and mountains of northern Mexico, attacking small federal garrisons and eluding capture untilÃ 1920 when the political situation changed. In 1920, Carranza backed off a promise to support ObregÃ ³n for president. This was a fatal mistake, as ObregÃ ³n still had much support in many sectors of society, including the army. Carranza, fleeing Mexico City, was assassinated on May 21, 1920. The death of Carranza was an opportunity forÃ Pancho Villa. He began negotiations with the government to disarm and stop fighting. Although ObregÃ ³n was against it, Provisional President Adolfo de la Huerta saw it as an opportunity and brokered a deal with Villa in July. Villa was granted a large hacienda, where many of his men joined him, and his veterans were all given mustering-out pay and an amnesty was declared for Villa, hisÃ officers, and men.Ã Eventually, even ObregÃ ³n saw the wisdom of peace with Villa and honored the deal. Death of Villa ObregÃ ³n was elected President of Mexico in September of 1920, and he began the work of rebuilding the nation.Ã Villa,Ã retired to his hacienda in Canutillo, began farming and ranching. Neither man forgot about one another, and the people never forgot Pancho Villa: how could they, when the songs about his daring and cleverness were still sung up and down Mexico? Villa kept a low profile and was seemingly friendly with ObregÃ ³n, but soon the new president decided the time had come to get rid of Villa once and for all. On July 20, 1923, Villa wasÃ gunned down as he drove a carÃ in the town of Parral. Although he was never directly implicated in the killing, it is clear that ObregÃ ³n gave the order, perhaps because he feared Villas interference (or possible candidacy) in the 1924 elections. Pancho Villas Legacy The people of Mexico were devastated to hear of Villas death: he was still a folk hero for his defiance of the Americans, and he was seen as a possible savior from the harshness of the ObregÃ ³n administration. The ballads continued to be sung and even those who had hated him in life mourned his death. Over the years, Villa has continued to evolve into a mythological figure. Mexicans have forgotten his role in the bloody Revolution, forgotten his massacres and executions and robberies. All that is left is his daring, cleverness and defiance, which continue to be celebrated by many Mexicans in art,Ã literature, and film. Perhaps it is better this way: Villa himself certainly would have approved. Source: McLynn, Frank.Ã Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2000.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Dimension of Inter-Professional Practice Introduction The Dimension of Inter-Professional Practice ) NMC (2008), Code of Conduct, Nursing and Midwifery Council, London Ovretveit, J., Mathias, F., Thomoson, T. eds., (1997). Interprofessional working for health and social care. Hampshire: Macmillan Press Limited. Pollard, K., (2005). Interprofessional Working: an Essential Guide for Health and Social-Care Professionals; England, Nelson Thrones Limited. Roper, Logan and Tierney (1996), Whithead (2000) Education, behavioural change and social psychology: NursingÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution to health promotion. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(6), 822-832 Whitehead D, (2001) Applying collaborative practice to health promotion. Nursing Standards. 15(20):33-7. Bibliography General Social Care Council, (2006). Code of Practice For Social Workers and Employers. London: GSCC. Golightley, M., (2008). Social Work and Mental Health People. Learning Matters. Barker. P., (2009).Ã Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing: The Craft of Caring. 2nd ed. London. Hodder Arnold. Taylor. C., Lillis. C., Lemone. P., (2001). Fundamentals of Nursing: The art and Science of Nursing Care, 4th edn, Lippincott, Philadelphia. Thompson I., Melia K., Boyd K., (2000).Ã Nursing Ethics, London, Churchill Livingstone
Monday, November 4, 2019
Drama- Los Vendidos ( Luis Valdez) - Essay Example This oppression entails racial prejudice and inequality faced by Chicanos while trying to achieve their American dream. However, Valdez uses satirical humor to depict these injustices and deliver the message to the audience. A good example of such humor occurs when Sancho responds to a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s concerns regarding finding a Mexican with the capacity to work for the government. The play is also impressive as it uses locations such as East of Los Angeles, which is suitable for the historical American setting because Chicanos lived in the region in the 20th century. In addition, Los Vendidos encompasses the use of stereotypes in dialogue to convey the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intended message. For instance, the dialogue between Sancho and a customer with regard to the maintenance of the Mexican models is implicit of a stereotype regarding ChicanosÃ¢â¬â¢ traditional foods, as well as their conventional work ethic. Los VendidosÃ¢â¬â¢ use of both English and Spanish creates an uneven storyline that requires the audience to find translations to keep up with the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s
Saturday, November 2, 2019
The Invention of the Perspective In the Renaissance - Essay Example The first 'book' refers to the 'diminution of plane surfaces' (6), the second explains the trial of ' diminution of square bodies' and those having a number of faces positioned at right angles to the planes'(7) and the third one 'the diminution of bodies' (8), that seems more difficult to realize. Analyzing Francesca's different ways of perspective, Kim Veltman notices 'geometrical proportion using diagonals' (9) a 'surveying type using a rod or a plane' (10) and 'a diagonal' (11) to determine the distance. There are also new 'perspective views' considered by Francesco in his book 'The Geometrical Method' ,these were basically used in the context of pavements, ceilings, facades and buildings and. He also used 'The Window Method' that had more elaborate details and was represented in architecture. Duccio di Buoninsegna was an Italian painter (1278-1319) who demonstrated the use of perspective in architectural forms. His style seems to be different in his tendency of giving his figures more volume. His 'perspective 'infuses elements from Byzantine style with more dramatic scenes and specific figures. In his 45 panels representing scenes from the Bible and saints he inspired from primitive Christian style regarding the outlines of figures, gestures, and clothes. In this way he tried to create a more natural visual impression. His art of 3 D perspective created a special spatiality, a type of 'breathing space' (17) around the persons and objects. The artist used a special technique of registering in his paintings intricate details (for example