Thursday, October 31, 2019

Are Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education Dissertation - 1

Are Black Afro Caribbean boys underachieving within the Education system that are born in the UK - Dissertation Example However, it is also important to understand that success is about opportunity. In the case of Black Afro Caribbean boys, the opportunity for them may also rely on the level of encouragement given to them for success. These children are mostly encouraged to participate in sports, dance or music, but not on professions such as in line with politics and law. The sole purpose is to make them role models in arts and entertainment (BBC News, 2011). Thus, these children are given less substantial background on politics and law but they are rather given much exposure in areas such as sports, dance or music. Certainly, there are different perceptions or ideas about achieving and under achieving. In short, the perception about success may vary. This means that Black Afro Caribbean boys can become successful when it comes to the opportunity given to them but not on areas where they are not given much exposure or encouragement. Prior to the understanding of underachieving among Black Afro Caribb ean boys within the UK’s education system, it is important to understand the derivation of acknowledgement of achievement. Achievement in the academe is given greater weight in the measurement of one’s level of attainment in life. Education particularly in the UK is given with great importance. That is why performing better in the academe has become a good measure of one’s success. There is only secondary evaluation given to areas which pertain to talents and skills. In line with this, Black Afro Caribbean boys are usually secluded from academic evaluation due to the fact that they are much exposed to sports, dance, music and other skill and talent related areas. However, the issue of racial discrimination especially among teachers on black Caribbean pupils exists in the education system (Thomas et al., 2009). In this way, the entire evaluation system may not be having enough solid foundation for concise evaluative process. Thus, more relevant bases are necessar y in order to find out how exactly black Caribbean pupils are performing in school. Objectives It is in line with this that the proponent of this paper tries to evaluate and find out if Black Afro Caribbean boys are really underachieving in the academe provided that they are much exposed to sports, dance, and music and even susceptible to racial discrimination. On the other hand, it is also part of this paper to define what exactly are the bases or standards used in evaluating under achievement among Black Afro Caribbean boys. The proponent will particularly answer the following questions at the end of the study. 1. What are the reasons why children underachieve in education? 2. Are black Afro Caribbean boys especially under achieving within the education system in the UK? 3. What are the reasons and effects of different education system in the UK on black afro Caribbean’s boys lerning? 4. What are the prevailing perception and acknowledgement of achieving and under achieving ? 5. How and where does the acknowledgement of achievement derive? 6. Do black afro Caribbean boys have the same opportunities or expectations to achieve? 7. Are black afro Caribbean boys affected by the lack of male role models? 8. Do teachers have low expectations of social groups such as looked after children, asylum seekers, single parented families and the disabled etc? Methodology The proponent in general would therefore investigate the reasons why

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Banking and Finance Law Essay Example for Free

Banking and Finance Law Essay Joint account holders, case: Arden v Bank of New South Wales (1956) VLR 569 Combination of account, the bank’s right to combine accounts is dependant on the accounts being the same or closely similar. The right to combine accounts without express agreement: accounts must be held by customer in the same capacity, must not be an agreement or course of dealing with the customer which has negated the bank’s right to combine accounts, customer’s indebtedness must have been incurred to the bank as an banker and not in relation to other business carried on by the bank eg travel business. The main case of this rule is: Garnett v McKewan 1872. Knowing Receipt: Case: Thomson v Clydesdale Bank Ltd (1893) AC 282 APPLICATION Fantastic Landscapes is a customer of the Red Bank because it has accounts in this bank which are overdraft account with has a borrowing limit of $100000 accepted by Red Bank and another account has $20000 (Account No 2) Applying to the content of the contact, Fantastic Landscapes has signed an agreement form that is an express terms made between Red Bank and Fantastic Landscapes. The general terms and conditions included the following clause 12: upon receipt of each monthly overdraft account statement, the account holder shall read the statement and notify the bank of any errors contained in the statement within 15 days. Failure to notify the bank of any errors within that time will be treated as a breach of contract by the account holder entitling the bank to its remedies at law. Applying to the bank’s duty of confidentiality, the Red Bank recorded transactions between it and its customer (Fantastic Landscapes) and reported to its customer every 15 days as written in the general term. However, Red Bank did not complete its duty to question valid mandate because the cheques drawn by Minnie (one of the director of Fantastic Landscapes) within a period of 3 months are unusual drawn on Fantastic Landscapes’ overdraft account. When according to joint account holders, Ben actually is an innocent joint account holder, so he has a right to sue the Red Bank for the breach of contract. However, applying to the duty of customer in section duty to organize business, following cases: Lewes Sanitary Steam Laundry Co Ltd v Barclay Co Ltd (1906) 95 LT 444; and (6. 1) National Bank of New Zealand Ltd v Walpole and Patterson Ltd (1975) 2NZLR 7. The Red bank has an absolute advantage in this case because of the express term written in the contract Another director of Fantastic Landscapes, Ben has failed when sue Red Bank to recredit account which Minnie has stolen because he did not check overdraft account during 3 months, and in the contract with Red Bank has asked he to rea d and notify the bank of any errors contained in the statement within 15 days. Therefore, Ben or Fantastic Landscapes could not claim back $50000. When apply to combination of account, the Fantastic Landscapes has won in this lawsuit. The Red Bank has combined overdraft account and Account No 2 without any notice because they hear that this company has just lot a large landscaping contract and not working any more. Moreover, Red Bank has agreed Fantastic Landscapes to borrow maximum $100000, so they can not combine account without any notice to this company even though its overdraft account has reached to $100000. Therefore, Red Bank has to pay $10000 penalty fee for Fantastic Landscapes to the finance company. According to duty of the banker, the BLB (Big Lender Bank) does not have any duty to Fantastic Landscapes because in this case, its customer Minnie just is its client. Therefore, BLB do not have any duty to her company although she is a director in that company and she has committed fraud. Moreover, BLB do not care about how Minnie paid off her debt because Minnie did not withdraw money in the trust account. In addition, according to Thomson v Clydesdale Bank Ltd (1893) AC 282. BLB does not need to care about its customer detail particularly. Hence, the chances for Fantastic Landscapes win in this case in not to high than the case it won before when against Red Bank to reclaim $10000 penalty fee for finance company. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the Fantastic Landscapes has won in the case against Red Bank for compensation for $10000 penalty fee when they applied their case to combination of account. They won because Red Bank has committed the rule when combine two accounts without any notice to its customer. On the other hand, although the main fault belong to Minnie, the Fantastic Landscapes has failed in the case to recredit, its account when apply express term between it and the Red Bank. After all, the BLB do not have any duty to Fantastic Landscapes for compensation because when apply knowing receipt rule via Thomson case.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Environmental Problems Derived From Modern Societies Environmental Sciences Essay

Environmental Problems Derived From Modern Societies Environmental Sciences Essay Global warming is probably one of the most talked issues of our generation and ironically it is probably one of the most misunderstood subjects. Everyone talks about it without truly understand what it means for our future or what its horrifying consequences are. The dictionary defines global warming as the rise in the average temperature of Earths atmosphere and oceans since the late 19th century and its projected continuation.  [1]   This essay will analyze with more depth this definition and also make the students understand how serious this subject is about to become and how it is in our hands to slow down this process before it is too late. Environmental problems derived from modern societies The comfort we have in our modern life is leading us to use up many natural resources. So, it is important to understand what controls the fragile and complex climate on Earth. The Earth temperature is controlled by the greenhouse effect. This effect is a process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases. Life on Earth is only possible because of the green house effect. Actually, if this effect did not exist, the temperature on the surface would be around 34 °C colder than it is in the present days. With the rise of gas emissions of the green house effect, as in the gases which absorb and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range, the fragile and complex system that controls Earth climate is affected and consequently, the surface becomes warmer. As Derek Markham states: The main greenhouses gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and other halocarbons, ozone (O3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). These gases are not only produced by human action but there are also natural causes aggravating the situation. Starting by stating the main ones, such as, our ever-increasing addiction to electricity from coal burning power plants releases enormous amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.  [2]   Every day, more electric gadgets flood the market, and without alternative energy sources, we are highly dependent on burning coal for our personal and commercial electrical supply. Other big issue is the demand for more cars and consumer goods, which increased the use of fossil fuels for transportation and manufacturing caused its growth at an alarming rate among the population. Other cause derived from the grown of the population is the enormous quantity of methane released into the atmosphere by the creation of animals in a large scale. The process of anaerobic decomposition that takes place in the intestines of herbivorous animal produced methane. Furthermore Markham says: The use of forests for fuel (both wood and for charcoal) is one cause of deforestation, but in the first world, our appetite for wood and paper products, our consumption of livestock grazed on former forest land, and the use of tropical forest lands for commodities like palm oil plantations contributes to the mass deforestation of our world. Forests remove and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and this deforestation releases large amounts of carbon, as well as reducing the amount of carbon capture on the planet. Analyzing the consequences Although there are countless alarming consequences  [3]  there are a few that deserve more attention. For instant, with climate change, areas where precipitation was relatively constant now cease to be. With time, this situation generates a low irrigation of soil and consequently the desertification of soil. What happens it that the soil of these certain areas starts to become increasingly sterile and which means that the land does no longer have enough nutrients to grow new vegetation, both natural and planted by men. Without vegetation, less will rain, the soil becomes barren and lifeless and, of course, survival is very difficult. Also, as global warming is associated with the rise of the planets average temperature, this increase passes on the heat to water sources present on Earth and therefore it is a reason of alarm because it is believed to be the main cause for some Fauna and Flora extinction once present in the deep ocean. Also, Joe Romm says: It is predicted more intense monsoons with climate change. Warmer air can hold more water and puts more energy into weather systems, changing the dynamics of storms and where and how they hit.  [4]   Considering this scenario, what it is more likely to happen is that cities and towns will not be prepared for this impact in terms of infrastructures. Another issue, and that might be the scariest, is the general reduction in food production: Due to this Natures immoderate behaviour and climates conditions, the profits in average crop will vary depending on its geologic location. This effect on productivity will lead to a reduction in global food production, resulting on the increase of cases of malnutrition.footnote! This will also be followed by the fact that mosquitoes are extremely sensitive to climate variations and global warming will allow these species to travel to parts of the world that used to be too cold for them to survive, which means that tropical diseases will spread south from South East Asia and Africa to other places. Lastly is the fact that the polar ice (ice accumulated on top of the land on both poles) is melting at an increasingly fast pace, a process triggered by surface heating. The problem is that our Planet has about 38 million cubic kilometres of ice, of which 85% are in Antarctica. Because ice is less dense than water, around 33 million of cubic kilometres of water would obviously go to the ocean. Considering that the oceans surface is 360 million cubic kilometres and if this surface remains constant, it would mean an increase of 60 meters of the sea level. Of course this is an irrealistic and extremist point of view and we can only predict based on results of the UN Climate Panel an increase of the sea level about 18 to 60 centimetres in the next century, which is not a big problem. What have we been doing to minimise global warming? Up to date, there have been major worldwide congresses and Talks to discuss the Global Warming issue and spread the word. From all of them, there are two that deserve attention: The World Summit River in 1992 which took place in Rio de Janeiro, was the first major conference focused on this topic and to debate solutions to combat global warming. 117 representatives of countries around the world were present that day to sign the most important measure called Agenda 21, which committed these signatory nations to adopt the new methods of sustainable development, creating an economic background to serve as financial support in order to achieve the target set to cut carbon emissions by the year 2000, when carbon dioxide in atmosphere was 355 ppm. In the following years the involve countries did not accomplished the targets and in 1997, when the carbon emissions where 365 ppm at atmosphere according to IPCC, it was called the Kyoto summit. In the Kyoto summit there been established new targets to cut up 5.2 per cent below 1990 levels before 2012 and again the countries did no achieve this. So it is understandable that we have been doing climate change policy but failed over and over again. It is time to realize the current approach is broken and we have to think about other solutions. The solutions As consequences, solutions are countless and should be put into practice more actively. The solutions presented next are the most important ones: Starting by fossil fuels, probably the most difficult one to achieve because of its presence in society is to continually eliminate the burning of coal, oil and natural gas and replace them by other sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, water splitting, algae fuel, terra power, wave energy, urban cooling and geo- engineering Infrastructure Upgrade is another measure that needs attention, buildings in cities contribute to about one third of all greenhouse gas emissions, even though investing in thicker insulation  and other cost-effective, temperature-regulating steps can save money in the long run. But energy-efficient buildings and improved cement-making processes could reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the developed world and prevent them in the developing world. Transportation is another major source of greenhouse gas emissions, so one action that could make all the difference for this situation is moving near to work or use other ways of transport such as walking, cycling or some other way that only requires human energy. Avoiding long-distance flights would be of great help too, for instant there are distances that can be achieved by train instead. Consuming less should be the number one rule in developed countries. Consuming less results in fewer fossil fuels being burned to extract, less production and less shipping of products around the world. Following this thought, every citizen should do more with less and try not to waste our resources so easily, such as leaving the tap open or the lights turned on. The same applies to choose carefully what you buy, for instant choosing local food because it does not need to be transported. Following this thought, consuming less would have a big impact in cutting the trees and would help preserving the few existing forests because right now 33 million acres are cut down per year. One option is to set a global tax on carbon, which is applied consistently across the globe. This would mean the biggest polluters pay the appropriate cost for the damage they are doing to the environment. Proceeds of this tax could be reinvested in renewable energy solutions and energy efficiency schemes. Tax credits could also be given for research and development schemes focused on reducing energy use, conserving water and other energy efficiency initiatives. . What should we expect from the future? Is there still hope? As everyone heard before, the future is in our hands, especially in the leading governments. There is still no absolute idea about solutions probably there is no definite solution to solve global warming but there are solutions to gain time and make things last for longer. Countless organisations and scientists believe that every day. We are not yet saved or doomed, which should be more than a motivation for us, citizens of the world, to act more efficiently and start thinking about new ways of living. I believe that we are not yet prepared for the possibilities of having to adapt our livings standards and probably the need to survive rather than living comfortably in our cosy homes. But again it all depends on our governments and us all.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Large Amounts of Glutamine as the Cause of Disease Essay -- Biology Al

Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are caused by the aggregation of abnormal proteins in neurons. An essential component of cellular function is the correct assimilation of proteins in the cell. Proteins fold into specific structures and then carry out cellular functions. However, when this folding process runs amuck, abnormal proteins are introduced into the cell. In neurodegenerative diseases, these protein aggregates are characterized by having genes which contain too many CAG trinucleotides repeats that encode for polyglutamine (polyQ). Having too much polyQ leads to the gene products being converted to a proteotoxic state. All in all, disruptions in protein folding lead to an overabundance of CAG repeats which results in an overproduction of polyQ which raises the toxicity of the cell to levels that effect the cell's functions. Through experimentation, this paper attempted to find the threshold for the number of CAG repeats that determines whether cellular function will be disrupted by the protein aggregates. Molecular genetic studies have already established than normal chromosomes (and genes) contain fewer than 30-34 CAG repeats. This paper attempted to prove that 35-40 CAG repeats results in cellular toxicity levels that severely disrupt cellular function. To address the connection between the CAG threshold (thus, the polyQ aggregation) and cellular toxicity, a species of worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, was used during experimentation. (C. elegans are good model organisms to study human neurodegenerative disease not only because C. elegans' neurons resemble vertebrate neurons at cellular and molecular levels, but also because many genes are conserved between worms and h... ... aggregation causes cell toxicity, or if the aggregates are a benign product of some other, yet unknown process that causes the detrimental effects. If future research reveals that glutamine aggregates promote cell toxicity, we can direct research on how to inhibit these aggregations to slow down or possibly reverse the course of the disease. 2.) How aging in the infected organism influences the progression of Huntington's disease: Experiments with C. elegans expressing the age-1 genetic mutation not only had an extended the lifespan, but also had a delayed onset of Huntington's disease. This suggests that a substance produced as an organism ages can catalyzes the toxicity of Huntington's disease. With this in mind, further research could hunt for what this aging-related catalyst is. Blocking this substance may slow down or halt the progression of the disease.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Balancing Work and Family

Balancing Work and Family Managing work and family life can become quite a challenge even for the best family managers. Some families are more likely to balance their work and family based on traditional roles. However, some families are more expected to divide their work in term of the modern family type. A lot of families have difficulties to handle and balance both work and family equally while they choose household chores as the first primary choice, so they will observe with less opportunity outside work.Both traditional and modern family types always have different perspectives on how to handle the challenges of balancing work and family life. The most important thing that a first couple in the interview believes is having good preparation, intentionality, and decision-making with high demands to support their children and family. A woman of first couple has traditional roles of taking care of the home and children, she would define her family as two or more people who share th eir kindness, share happy and sad moment together, share values, share their trusts, and share consideration and helpfulness.Based on some of the challenges that she encountered in balancing work and family early on in their relationship, both of them tend to work hard and seek for a stable income and career with high demands for managing the family. The most complex decision-making faced by the couple is when to become parents if this in their plans. When they decide to have children, she also decides to quit her job as her responsible to take care of the children and to complete the household chores while her husband tends to give stable financial and moral support.In contrast, the most significant key to creating and maintaining the right position between work and family for a second couple of the interview is to arrange and share their housework by negotiating equal division of labor in term of the modern family type. Moreover, one problem for her as a workingwoman is the prover bial second shift. She often finds herself working double time to perform other household chores in addition to working full-time outside home.However, her husband often gives some helps and he does not tend to follow the traditional roles. She also believes a family is defined as two or more people who share responsibility for decisions, share values and goals, and have commitment to one another over time. To balance their work and family for the future planning to have children, they would inquire more special considerations helped them arrive at decision with enough income and stable income. Condition of work also does not interfere much with taking care of the child.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Contemporary Art Essays - Pop Artists, Otaku, Takashi Murakami

Contemporary Art Essays - Pop Artists, Otaku, Takashi Murakami Contemporary Art Contemporary Art Compare and Contrast Writing Assignment The three contemporary pieces of art that I decided to compare and contrast all come from one artist, contemporary Japanese artist Takashi Murakami. I came across this artist years ago after listing to Kanye West 3rd album The Graduation. I was so impressed by the album cover art work I decided to look up the artist and found out Takashi was much more than just a drawer, he is a painter a sculptor and an over all creative genius when it comes to his different forms of contemporary media. He creates a world of cartoon like creatures using vivid colors almost remind me of a cartoon representation of a really crazy acid or mushroom experience. His art gallery entitled EGO showcased the different forms of art Takashi can create, I chose a painting, a sculpture and an installation that I will compare and contrast from his exhibition. Takashis painting titled Mr. DOB was created with acrylic paint on canvas. It is a 2D art piece with a composition give depth to the creatures drawn in the painting. Takashi draws the main figure high up and puts other creatures in the foreground so you can get the perception that youre looking up at this massive creature he created. He used very vibrant colors like teal blue, bright pink and yellow, the world and beasts he created are fictional so the odd colors make them stand out and give them their own worldly feel. Mr. DOB is very abstract, although the characters are completely made up, he paints them in a way that you can still relate their actions to a feeling. The painting gives me a sense of death, although it is a very bright piece, it is very chaotic and the creatures seem to be shooting each other or at war. Flower Matango was a piece he created as an installation for his gallery. It consist of bright abstract smiling-flower wallpaper on the walls and floor, a painting and a matching smiling-flower sculpture in the center as its main focal point, that was created to fit the entire space. This installation was made to engulf you as you experience it. All the flowers are very colorful, five pedal flowers with a smile face for the center. Theres really no limit on the colors used to create the flowers, the brighter the color the better. The sculpture is made of soft cotton stuffed pillows figures that the exact same flower pieces as the painting and wallpaper, just 3D. In this insulation he utilized both the 3D and 2D components of art expression. This installation although visually bright like his painting Mr. DOB conveys a very different message. Where the other once is pure chaos this piece is sure joy. Every flower created whether painted or sculpted all have a small face. I feel as if the subject matter is that we as society smile to one another and think were individuals when really, were all the same. He represents thats with all the flowers being different colors, but they all look alike and every single one has the exact same smile. It almost gives off a sense of fakeness. The third media is a 20-foot 3D inflatable sculpture of him titled by his first name Murakami. It is an exact replica of the artist himself. The focal point of this peace would be his large 4 foot hand reaching out as to be giving or reactive something form the views. He created himself sitting with he legs crossed, I feel that keeps your eyes circling the sculpture and you look at it. Unlike the rest of his artwork being very bright and conceptual this sculpture is very realistic; from the facial structure to the skin tones colors and hair and clothing, everything seems to be ordinary. I believe he created this piece as the headline of his EGO exhibit. Ego is a persons sense of self-importance or self-esteem, to create a giant, precise reproduction of himself, I believe is a way of him acknowledging how great he is at his craft and being self aware of the creative abilities he possesses. The three art pieces contain many similarities and

Monday, October 21, 2019

Incomplete Dominance vs Codominance Whats the Difference

Incomplete Dominance vs Codominance What's the Difference SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you studying genetics but don’t understand the codominance vs. incomplete dominance differences? What’s the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance? Why is it important to know? In this guide, we explain what incomplete dominance and codominance are, as well as how they’re different, using real-world examples to make these terms clear and easy to understand. What Is Incomplete Dominance? What Is Codominance? What is the difference between codominance and incomplete dominance? Before we get into comparing them, let’s first explain what incomplete dominance and codominance are. They are both important terms to know when studying genetics and inheritance patterns. Incomplete dominance and codominance are both types of inheritance where one allele (a form of a gene) isn’t completely dominant over the other allele. This results in a new phenotype (the physical characteristics of an individual). Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance is when there is a blending of the two alleles that results in a third phenotype that doesn’t look like either of the parents. The classic example is when a white flower and red flower are crossed. With incomplete dominance, all their offspring would be solid pink flowers, a completely new phenotype. You don’t see either of the parent phenotypes (i.e. white or red) in the offspring. Two common examples of incomplete dominance are height and hair color. Offspring will likely not have the exact same height or hair color as one of their parents but will often have a blend between the two parent’s phenotypes. Codominance In codominance, both alleles are expressed together in the offspring. If we cross a red flower and white flower that have a codominance inheritance pattern, the offspring would be flowers with red and white patches on them. Unlike incomplete dominance, where the two parent phenotypes are blended together into a new phenotype, in codominance, both parent phenotypes show up together on the offspring. The most common example of codominance is the AB blood type. If a person with A type blood and a person with B type blood have a child, that child could have type AB blood where both phenotypes are fully expressed. Examples of Incomplete Dominance and Codominance When comparing codominance vs. incomplete dominance, it can be useful to see visuals of how they pass their genes onto their offspring. Below are three Punnett squares, two for incomplete dominance and one for codominance. Incomplete Dominance In the Punnett square below we are crossing a pure red flower (RR) with a pure white flower (rr). Under incomplete dominance, all of their offspring would be pink (Rr). Under the complete dominance type of inheritance (the type of inheritance you probably first studied when learning about genetics), all the offspring would be red flowers, since the red allele would be completely dominant over the white allele. However, as mentioned above, with incomplete dominance, the two parent phenotypes are blended together in the offspring. RR: red rr: white Rr: pink What happens when you cross two pink (Rr) flowers? Half the offspring would be pink (Rr), a quarter would be red (RR), and a quarter would be white (rr) as you can see in the Punnett square below. When the two alleles are the same, either RR or rr, incomplete dominance doesn’t matter since there is no blending of different alleles. It’s only when an individual has two different alleles (like Rr) that incomplete dominance comes into play. Codominance For our codominance example, let’s say we’re crossing cows that have codominance inheritance rules for their coat color. Cows with the genotype BB are completely black, those with the genotype WW are completely white, and when they are crossed, cows with the genotype BW have black and white spots across their body. (When doing a cross that follows codominance inheritance patterns, all capital letters are usually used to represent the alleles to show no allele is dominant over the other.) By now, you can probably tell that if you were to cross a pure black cow with a pure white one, all the offspring would have black and white spots since they’d all have the BW genotype. Below is a Punnett square showing what happens when you cross a pure black cow (BB) with a black and white spotted cow (BW). BB: black WW: white BW: black and white spots From the Punnett square, you can see that half of the offspring will be pure black, and the other half will have black and white spots. Summary: What Is the Difference Between Incomplete Dominance and Codominance? Incomplete dominance and codominance are two types of genetic inheritance, and while both are variants on the standard dominant/recessive traits, it’s important to know the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance. Incomplete dominance is when the phenotypes of the two parents blend together to create a new phenotype for their offspring. An example is a white flower and a red flower producing pink flowers. Codominance is when the two parent phenotypes are expressed together in the offspring. An example is a white flower and a red flower producing offspring with red and white patches. Being able to explain the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance will help you understand different inheritance patterns and be able to answer genetics questions (especially = incomplete dominance vs. codominance questions) much more easily.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

2018 Hurricane Names

2018 Hurricane Names 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 Below you will find the listing of hurricane names for the Atlantic Ocean for the year 2018. For every year, there is a pre-approved list of tropical storm and hurricane names. These lists have been generated by the National Hurricane Center since 1953. At first, the lists consisted of only female names; however, since 1979, the lists alternate between male and female. Hurricanes are named alphabetically from the list in chronological order. Thus the first tropical storm or hurricane of the year has a name that begins with A and the second is given the name that begins with B. The lists contain hurricane names that begin from A to W, but exclude names that begin with a Q or U. There are six lists that continue to rotate. The lists only change when there is a hurricane that is so devastating, the name is retired and another hurricane name replaces it. The 2018 hurricane name list is almost the same as the 2012 hurricane name list.  Hurricane Sandy was a large and destructive storm in 2012 so the name was retired from the list and Sara took its place. 2018 Hurricane Names AlbertoBerylChrisDebbyErnestoFlorenceGordonHeleneIsaacJoyceKirkLeslieMichaelNadineOscarPattyRafaelSaraTonyValerieWilliam

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The Value of Information Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Value of Information - Assignment Example Managers are mostly faced by a were situation where they have to make decisions instantly; hence, it is mostly the case that decision making under uncertainty is mostly the case for decision makers. Imperfect information can largely be ignored in repetitive trials with small effects resulting from errors because the impacts are small, and the result from errors showing that the information could be the waist not for the errors. The other reason for ignoring imperfect information is the inability of the information to have much impact on the probabilities or chances for making the correct decision; hence, they can largely be ignored. The need for first-time success increases the demand for information as a measure of ensuring uncertainty is reduced in making the decision increasing the chances of making the correct decision. Availability of information for decision-making increases the possibility of first-time success by ensuring the decision maker knows the odds between making the correct and wrong decision. To augment the chances of first-time success, the demand for information increases to ensure the ability to make correct decision increases. The demand for information incr eases in first-time success owing to lack of previous data and the high uncertainty associated with first-time success owing to no proven record of accomplishment for decision making. In one-shot large potential loss situations, the information that is commonly available is the payoffs that the decision maker expects to get from a given decision from the highest to the lowest pay off accompanying any.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Border security issues (week 1) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Border security issues (week 1) - Essay Example Such sense of loyalty is the reason that contributes to people’s desire to manipulate the impression they want from others. There are a few advantages that come from exposing a friend or family member of actions that seem morally wrong. For example, if a wife discovers that her husband sexually abuses one of their children, she may find this an extremely difficult choice make, whether to report him to the police or not. Exposing such an offender to the authorities would be the right thing to do for her children because failure to do it could lead to another assault. A friend who exposes his or her friend for bullying others provides a clear step towards eliminating other bullies in schools or societies. Under the law, a parent has the duty to protect the children. The court may view it as a crime when a parent fails to take reasonable steps to protect the children. The advantage of exposing the offender in both cases is that the party reporting is not liable for the crime. Exposing a person on the wrong also provides the person who reported with a sense of control of the situation. The problem with exposing a friend or a family member of their wrong doing is that it is traumatizing for cases where there is a victim involved in an assault. In cases where the report needs to go to a trial, a lot of information comes out and both parties may not want confidential matters becoming a public matter. Exposing a person who has committed a wrong does not necessarily mean that the person gets punished or in other cases sued (Richards & Swanger, 2006). It is frustrating to see that no one may respond to the problem as one

Chart Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Chart - Essay Example It takes a gut-level feeling to silently communicate knowledge to your students. A proof I have for this is the list of all the â€Å"technically† good teachers I had since nursery, but only some of them were able to tap into my inner thirst and motivation to learn (Moore 5). If effectiveness in teaching relies on these dispositions, then it proves all the more that teaching is not only science, but also an art. Although there is always the possibility that these skills may be learned, most of the times, they are inborn. And yes, I agree that effective teachers should possess these qualities, because I believe that teaching and learning are interactions between teachers and students. The better the interaction is, the better the passing-on of knowledge is. I support inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream classrooms. I believe that learning is not about restricting, but in expanding the horizon for the learners. If they are able to interact with other students, then they should be placed in that environment. Besides, we allow them to learn so that they will be able to stand up on their own in the future --- and in that future, they will be surrounded by people without disabilities. There are several professional teaching standards in place that ensure the quality of teachers available to students. Upon reviewing their criteria, it is interesting to note that the standards are different from one state to another. It would have been better if the standards are the same because it tells you that they are really after the quality. Having different requirements makes the process look like just another licensure program. Curriculum will continue to change because the areas of needs --- the subject, the student, and the society --- evolve. For one, we now have inclusive education --- something that we did not have several decades back. We also witness the rapid increase in multicultural classrooms nowadays. With the


THE PERIPATOS COULD NOT HAVE LOOKED LIKE THAT, AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES FROM STUDENT GAME DESIGN - - Research Paper Example Nonetheless, the current approach to learning among youngsters is highly related with the use of technology, unlike the learners of the previous century who rarely had the opportunity to see, let alone use computer technology in their studies. Individuals who can flash memories of popular tunes or feel the impact of cutting edge technologies in entertainment have undoubtedly been accustomed to the use of â€Å"video games,† though in different ways. As a result they have transformed memories of significant social events in history remain etched on the minds of the viewers and consumers. Videogames offer an innovative sense of conventions, which are inevitably being assimilated at a very high speed by children in their early childhood (Shelton, & Wiley, 2007). Their mental development would definitely mature faster to reflect what is presented in the video games, just as the perception of the current geriatrics were influenced by the advent of television toward the mid-twentieth century. The current technological innovation is more complex than the advent of television, however. With video games, children are set to gain more cognitive skills in their attempt to not only become well-conversant with playing the game, but in identifying what actually make the games tick. As a result, current crop of children will be screen manipulators rather than screen watchers. The combination of educational material to entertainment content or edutainment has been well taken care of under videogames. The current generation of learners has already triggered the development of a persuasive, attractive and entertaining mode of education. According to Shelton and Wiley (2007) if the learning facilities and classrooms in particular were to lack entertainment tools, children would not learn as well. Some would be reluctant to stay in school or concentrate in class for

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Egypt Revolution of 1919 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Egypt Revolution of 1919 - Essay Example British promised to evacuate Egypt but it did not materialize. Therefore, big chapter in Egypt’s foreign occupation and Britain’s global empire (Daly, 1988). Saad Zaghul formed the Egyptian delegation party known as â€Å"wafd†. This party started pressing nationalist cause. Tactics of civil disobedience was used by people to begin a huge movement of independence. Zaghlul and Wafd had gathered massive public support. Petition for full independence of Egypt was lodged. British could sense the rising support for Wafd leaders. British arrested Zaghlul and other main leaders of movement and exiled them to Malta. The ultimate outcome of all this was revolution in Egypt (Daly, 1988). The Egyptian revolution of 1919 compelled British government to recognize Egypt as independent state in 1922 and then ultimately implementation to new constitution took place in 1923. Causes Egypt came under British rule on December 14 1914. People were agitated against the British rule an d they got united in their discontent. During the war about 1.5 million Egyptians were recruited in the labor corps by British army. Main infrastructure of the country was seized for the army. Saad Zaghlul was founder of the Wafd party during World War 1. The party got fame just after the war setting the goal of ending British occupation. 14 points of Woodrow got fame and inspired nationalists. On November 11 1918, Zaghlul requested high commissioner Sir Reginald Wingate to permit Wafd activists for presenting Egypt’s demand for independence in London. Wafd party members were not allowed to visit London (Bisgaard-Church, 2011). Party kept sending messages to House of Commons but no response shown by British government. In March 1919, Zaghlul was arrested by the British with two other part leaders and then exiled them to Malta. This resulted in countrywide protests incorporating people from all walks of life against the British Occupation. Cairo and Alexandria witnessed the ma in strikes against British held by men, women, shop owners and tradesmen. Milner mission was sent by British to access the real political and diplomatic situation in Egypt but his visit was boycotted (Bisgaard-Church, 2011). Zaghlul returned to Egypt from exile on April 4 1921. Allenby was clear in his mind that Zaghlul is a British puppet and wants to create new independent Egypt as per British desires. Zaghlul was again exiled to Seychelles in December. Exile was responded by Egyptians by countrywide strikes and protests (Bisgaard-Church, 2011). Events Egyptian nationalists demanded independence from British after the World War 1 ended. Wafd was formed which demanded independence at Paris conference. 13 November 1918 was celebrated as day of struggle. Wafd party was formed by Saad Zaghlul. This party wanted to visit London for demanding independence of Egypt but it was denied. Zaghlul and other party members were arrested on 8 March 1918 and further sent to Malta. This resulted in mobilizing people countrywide marking the beginning of revolution. Basic road and railways infrastructure was destroyed (Zunes, 1999). Zaghlul’s wife initiated women participation in movement by protesting against British occupation with 300 ladies. Demonstration held at Abdin palace of about 1000 civil servants and students was peak of the revolution. British took stern action to bring down demonstration by killing 800 Egyptians. British sent Lord Milner in May 1919 for giving self-governance to

Wynn Resorts Annual Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Wynn Resorts Annual Report - Essay Example the total revenue from $4, 184, 698, 000 in 2020 to $5, 269, 792,000 and an increase in net income from $160, 127, 000 in 2010 to $613, 371, 000 in 2011. The financial performance of the company has also been increasing as indicated by the increase in the company financial ratios. The company is preparing for the future by planning on new ventures. The company plans to increase it operations in order to reach the global customers, and that is why it plans to open more branches across the world in the future. In 201, the company opened an Encore at Wynn Macau as part of its expansion into luxuries hotels and Casino globally. Recently, the company has been proposing to apply for a construction of a hotel and Casino in Philadelphia as part of its efforts of increasing and diversifying its operations. The company has also introduced new products and services into the market like the introduction of spacious suites, additional gaming and retail space which were introduced in the Wynn Macau branch. Mission statement- Wynn Resorts Limited targets high worth individuals through the provision of a variety of socioeconomic activities in its resort industry and Casino. With its resorts in Macau and Las Vegas both at the Peoples Republic of China, the resort aims at reaching a global customer base. The resort also strives to the provision of new and innovative lodging and gaming amenities to all customers. It continually seeks for expansion opportunities and new ventures in order to make advancements in its Wynn brand and also to maximize shareholder wealth. Wynn Resorts Ltd continues to provide its customers with unique and quality gaming resort experience. It encourages employee training, growth and development in order to ensure hospitable and luxurious environment for all its customers. The main reason for choosing this article is because it talks of the current issues in Wynn Resorts Limited. The article talks on the new look in Limited and Las Vegas Sands Corp which

Wednesday, October 16, 2019


THE PERIPATOS COULD NOT HAVE LOOKED LIKE THAT, AND OTHER EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES FROM STUDENT GAME DESIGN - - Research Paper Example Nonetheless, the current approach to learning among youngsters is highly related with the use of technology, unlike the learners of the previous century who rarely had the opportunity to see, let alone use computer technology in their studies. Individuals who can flash memories of popular tunes or feel the impact of cutting edge technologies in entertainment have undoubtedly been accustomed to the use of â€Å"video games,† though in different ways. As a result they have transformed memories of significant social events in history remain etched on the minds of the viewers and consumers. Videogames offer an innovative sense of conventions, which are inevitably being assimilated at a very high speed by children in their early childhood (Shelton, & Wiley, 2007). Their mental development would definitely mature faster to reflect what is presented in the video games, just as the perception of the current geriatrics were influenced by the advent of television toward the mid-twentieth century. The current technological innovation is more complex than the advent of television, however. With video games, children are set to gain more cognitive skills in their attempt to not only become well-conversant with playing the game, but in identifying what actually make the games tick. As a result, current crop of children will be screen manipulators rather than screen watchers. The combination of educational material to entertainment content or edutainment has been well taken care of under videogames. The current generation of learners has already triggered the development of a persuasive, attractive and entertaining mode of education. According to Shelton and Wiley (2007) if the learning facilities and classrooms in particular were to lack entertainment tools, children would not learn as well. Some would be reluctant to stay in school or concentrate in class for

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Wynn Resorts Annual Report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Wynn Resorts Annual Report - Essay Example the total revenue from $4, 184, 698, 000 in 2020 to $5, 269, 792,000 and an increase in net income from $160, 127, 000 in 2010 to $613, 371, 000 in 2011. The financial performance of the company has also been increasing as indicated by the increase in the company financial ratios. The company is preparing for the future by planning on new ventures. The company plans to increase it operations in order to reach the global customers, and that is why it plans to open more branches across the world in the future. In 201, the company opened an Encore at Wynn Macau as part of its expansion into luxuries hotels and Casino globally. Recently, the company has been proposing to apply for a construction of a hotel and Casino in Philadelphia as part of its efforts of increasing and diversifying its operations. The company has also introduced new products and services into the market like the introduction of spacious suites, additional gaming and retail space which were introduced in the Wynn Macau branch. Mission statement- Wynn Resorts Limited targets high worth individuals through the provision of a variety of socioeconomic activities in its resort industry and Casino. With its resorts in Macau and Las Vegas both at the Peoples Republic of China, the resort aims at reaching a global customer base. The resort also strives to the provision of new and innovative lodging and gaming amenities to all customers. It continually seeks for expansion opportunities and new ventures in order to make advancements in its Wynn brand and also to maximize shareholder wealth. Wynn Resorts Ltd continues to provide its customers with unique and quality gaming resort experience. It encourages employee training, growth and development in order to ensure hospitable and luxurious environment for all its customers. The main reason for choosing this article is because it talks of the current issues in Wynn Resorts Limited. The article talks on the new look in Limited and Las Vegas Sands Corp which

The Story as Told in The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Essay Example for Free

The Story as Told in The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn Essay Mark Twains Legendary story of Huckleberry Finn is the tale of a young little-minded orphan boy named Huck, who is the narrator, and tells his story in which he is accompanied by a runaway slave named Jim who both embark on various mischievous adventures down the Mississippi River, Jim who is owned by Hucks care takers Ms. Watson and Widow Douglass is faced with the most challenges in the novel. Throughout the novel Huck Jim are faced with many obstacles on there adventures up and down the Mississippi River seeking the free state of Illinois, where Jims Plan is to gain his freedom and live his dream of reuniting with his wife and children whom were also sold into slavery. Eventhough the novel is touching and compelling in many ways over the last 120 years Twains novel has been attacked by various groups for being a racist novel, while others strongly believe that his novel is the greatest statement in American culture against racism. Twain began writing The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn currently after his first novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) which wasnt as much of a controversial novel compared to his best seller. Twain later re-wrote and re-wrote Huck Finn multiple times later finishing it in December 1883. During his writings Twain had a hard time within himself towards his novel due to his character Huck helping Jim runaway to a free state and there strong bond they both shared, which Twain knew wasnt a right thing to do during his time for the fact in the eyes of the average slave owners or racist go-getters. As years passed and many different versions of Twains writings evolved from language to language but still with-held the same context as his original writings. After Twains passing, and Huckleberry Finn having a slight shed under the limelight for some of its vulgar language, and more than many racial slurs toward Jim other characters portrayed as slaves in his novel, real criticism began. Many different types of various groups regardless whether they have there share of pros and cons, on the novel shared there own opinions regarding the use of the N word being used in the novel to be dignified as if it was Jims name. Those who do not approve of Twains writings are those who see the book as a racist novel, which when reading the novel you can see many different clusters of its racism. As you continue to read the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn you tend to notice that Huck is faced with many challenges dealing with the fact Jim is a runaway slave,and Huck is giving his share as being a accomplice in his crime, and that is where many people who see the negative side of the novel try to look passed the helpings of Huck and Jims freedom and just focus on that bubble of racial slurs and the hardships for African Americans of that time who were mistreated and who died trying to live a positive life style passed the mistreatment. Thats in all of the history itself Twain lived in the era where slaves were a household appliance or necessity and in todays days its unethical to own a slave, which many Americans today will all agree on. Many issues the groups who withheld opposition of Twains writings in our decade are trying to shed light on the fact that this novel is being taught in schools all across America, and the use of the racial slurs once again should be censored throughout the novel. Yet once you re-arrange a book to have the slightest bit of change, you create a gap or some type of a road block where you miss the true meanings Twain is trying to approach to his audience, to feel the feelings Jim and Huck felt on there voyage across the Mississippi, and thats when other groups who approve of the message Twain is trying to achieve in his purpose feel as if this is one of the novels in American History that cultivates one of the greatest statements of the true meaning on unity, faith, and the growth of a boy becoming a man all within a time where racism was a huge whirlwind of negativity. Choosing a side to say weather Twains novel is a racist book, or one of the greatest statements in American culture against racism. I would have to choose that, Twain was always giving a positive outlook when writing this story,due to many helpings between the friendship of Huck Jim. Regardless if it was Jim helping Huck or Huck Helping Jim it was an integrated friendship that would of not have been accepted in the society of the late 1800s when racism wasnt at its peak as it would be 50-80 years later in the time of the Civil Rights Movement. Some can and will always argue with the vulgarity scripted page by page in the story but that is what makes it such an interesting story, Twain wanted his reader to experience the feelings he captivated within each character and how hard it really was in his decade for two unlike pairs to help eachother gain more than moral values in life and to take chances in doing whats right than whats expected. Seeing passed the racism issues various groups attack Twains writings on, he tries to give a self point-of-view on what unity should really be like, such as Huck helping Jim be free than later throughout chapters recover Jim from a slave auction where he was forced to stay when the King and the Duke turned him in for ransom. Regardless of his skin color and the crime he committed Huck knew what was right from wrong and did the unexpected and helped out a colored man , at the time where it was not excepted to do so in that specific time frame in American History. You can say the novel shares its negatives and its positives on the opinions of racism, yet many can share there own opinions within eachother when reading the book. Mark Twain had every bit of intention to make his book have many controversies in his present and our future. People need to see the true meanings of Twains work past all of the negativity and a real autobiographical look at his point of view on racism itself, he had every reason for Huck and Jim to be best buddies in his novel because at that time he knew what was right from wrong. So people can his story is wrapped around tightly with words or racism some can say its simply work of great meanings but as I would say its a story of unity of two unlike pairs to be united as one into helping eachother find themselves and the true meaning of life, and becoming there own men, In Conclusion Mark Twains Legendary story of Huckleberry Finn the tale of the young little-minded orphan boy Huck, and a runaway slave Jim who both embarked on a mischievous adventure down the Mississippi River, and faced with many challenges seeking the free state of Illinois. Was really a tale of two unlike cultures coming together and helping one another no matter what color you are friendship is stronger than a racial barrier, eventhough the last 120 years the book has been attacked by various groups for being a racist novel, while others strongly believe that it is the greatest statement in American culture against racism. I strongly believe it is definitely the greatest statement in American culture against racism. Word Count:1266

Monday, October 14, 2019

What is Practical Work?

What is Practical Work? Practical work is viewed by the vast majority of science teachers, as an essential and integral part of science education. In fact, many regard it as an indispensable aspect of being a science teacher (Donnolly 1998 from review Practical work effectiveness in primary/sec schools Abraham). Practical work can encompass many different components, which can be divided into two main groups as described in Woodley E, (2009), as follows: 1) Core activities: These include hands-on activities such as different investigations, laboratory techniques and procedures, as well as fieldwork. These types of activities can help enhance the development of students practical laboratory skills, as well as helping them to understand key scientific concepts and phenomena. 2) Directly related activities: These are closely connected to the above core activities, and include practical demonstrations performed by the teacher, planning and designing scientific investigations and analysis of data. In addition, some argue that other activities such as use of computer simulations, modelling, use of surveys, presentations, group discussion and role plays can also constitute what is meant by the term practical activity (SCORE, 2008). However, others would disagree, and believe these activities would not come under the practical activity umbrella, and rather that they should be used complementarily alongside other practical activities, rather than be a substitute for them (Woodley, E). Millar described a practical activity as Any science teaching and learning activity which at some point involves the students, working individually or in small groups, in observing or manipulating objects to develop understanding. (Millar (2009)). It is described in The National Strategies as: Any activity that enables pupils to have direct, often hands-on, experience of the phenomena they are studying . (The National Strategies (2008)). In fact the following quotation from SCORE underpins what many believe about the importance of practical work in science: Science without practical is like swimming without water . (SCORE, 2008). Therefore, regardless of how practical work is defined, or what activities are thought to constitute it, it can be seen as a central part of how science should be taught in schools What is the Purpose of Practical Work? The main purposes of practical work are to engage students, aiding them to develop many important skills. In fact, practical work can support learning in a multitude of ways ranging from Personal learning and thinking skills to How science works (E Woodley) -See Figure 1. The overriding principle, however is to make links between the concrete and abstract worlds. (Reflecting on practical work). From reading the literature, it is clear that the different reasons and rationales for carrying out practical work in science can be classified into three main areas (see below), as discussed in (Practical Work in School Science: Which Way Now?  Jerry Wellington): Arguments for and against the use of practical work in science: 1). Cognitive arguments: It is thought that practical activities can relate to knowledge and understanding (the cognitive domain) by helping to strengthen students conceptual understanding of science by enabling them to visualise and make sense of different scientific laws and theories, often supporting learnt theory work. 2). Affective domains: This relates to the enjoyment and motivational aspects of practical work. Practical work is often used to generate interest and enthusiasm amongst students, and is thought to aid students in remembering things; making things stick. In fact, reports show that in terms of how students rate the enjoyability of school science activities, the three top rated were: going on a science trip (85%), looking at videos (75%) and doing a science experiment (71%), supporting the view that practical work is indeed highly motivational (Dillion J). 3). Skills argument: The last of the three main rationales for practical work is that it can help develop many transferable skills, as illustrated in Figure 1 above. However, characterising the real value and purpose of practical work is a very difficult task and divides opinion across the science education profession. In fact there are many arguments and counter arguments for and against practical work in science. Counter responses to the cognitive argument include the idea that practical work can often confuse rather than improve students understanding (especially if the practical does not go to plan). In addition Scott and Leach propose that practical work is not a good approach to teach theory, suggesting that theories comprise abstract ideas which cannot be demonstrated physically: In the context of the school laboratory it is clear that students cannot develop an understanding through their own observations, as the theoretical entities of science are not there to be seen. (Taken from Wellington book- Leach and Scott 1995:48) Arguments against the affective argument include the notion that many students are simply turned off at the idea and prospect of doing practicals. There is also evidence indicating that boys enjoy practical work more so than girls, and hence girls can often be less enthusiastic and motivated compared to boys doing the same practical task. (Wellington). Counter arguments to the proposal that practical work can develop many transferable skills also exist. These include the argument that group work within practical science often does not improve key skills such as communication and interaction, as widely believed, but when studied more closely, often results in more forceful students dominating the task, resulting in lack of enjoyment and engagement for some and the demotion of some students to simple medial tasks, such as drawing out tables or recording results without any real participation in the practical activity themselves.(Wellington). Many other science education professionals make claims of the overselling of the science education in terms of concept that science practical work can develop many transferable skills. The idea that these skills can add value to students and aid them on their chosen career paths have been discredited by some. In fact, Ausubel in the 1960s argued that any practical task that can give rise to the application of skills required for many disciplines, is simply not specific enough to address the particular scientific investigation being addressed: Grand strategies of discovery do not seem to be transferable across hardly seems plausible that a strategy of inquiry, which must necessarily be broad enough to be applicable to a wide range of disciplines and problems, can ever have sufficient particular relevance to be helpful in the solution of the specific problem at hand. (wellington, Ausubel 1964:298). Hence, there is much debate regarding the use of practical work within the teaching and learning of science in schools. The key question here really is to do with cognition and how we acquire knowledge. i.e. : How do we understand the world and make sense of it in our heads? (Miller R, 2004). One significant answer to this came from Jean Piaget, who is credited as the pioneer of the constructivist theory of knowing. He argued that we construct ever more complicated and sophisticated representations of the world. This is through modifying our existing understandings (or schemas; a structured cluster of concepts) through our actions on the world around us. If Piaget is correct, then the use of practical work in observing and intervening in the world must be vital for our understanding of science (R Miller 2004). The effectiveness of practical work in science As discussed above, many science teachers and other science education professionals believe that practical work in the education of science in schools is vital for helping students learn and remember things more clearly. However, as also noted there are arguments suggesting that practical work is actually not all that effective at achieving these aims. A prominent quotation from Osborne (1998) questions the effectiveness of practical work in the learning of science, saying that practical work: has only a limited role to play in learning science and that much of it is of little educational value (p. 156. from Miller 2004 review). Much of the conclusions of research into the effectiveness of practical work remain somewhat ambiguous. Research carried out in the 1980s by Hewson and Hewson (1983), in which In addition, others have argued that the way in which practical work is practised is often the cause of its ineffectiveness, and perhaps, therefore the type of practical work used, and the way it is used should be analysed, rather than simply saying that all practical work is ineffective. Hence if we are interested in looking at the effectiveness of practical work in science, the specific practical work used, or planning to be used need to be very carefully planned and thought out. A key consideration here is actually what is meant by the term effectiveness. A framework for judging the effectiveness of practical work Theobald in the 1960s argued that scientific theory must always be taught first and is required in order to visualise: Experience does not give concepts meaning, if anything concepts give experience meaning (J Wellington). Aggressive Reality Television: Impacts on Teenage Viewers Aggressive Reality Television: Impacts on Teenage Viewers Nashun Gross ABSRACT The popularity of reality TV has soared among teens. Not only are teenagers watching reality TV more than any other TV show, but it also influences their behavior, which is caused by teenagers who make a connection with the cast members. Connections happen when teens imitate the behavior because they view the cast as role models. Even when the cast behaves aggressive, whether physical, verbal, or relational, they tend to imitate that behavior. The more teenagers view aggression on reality TV, the more they are likely to use aggression as a tactic when solving real world problems. Aggression influences both girls and boys. When boys watch aggressive behavior, they tend to resort to verbal and physical aggression. Girls predominately react by using relational aggression. When aggressive reality television becomes the norm, social aggression will too. Aggressive Reality Television Impacts Teenage Viewers Although there have not been many studies on the effects of reality television there is an underlying issue researchers have found in reality television programming, relational aggression. Carlson Ward (2013) described relational aggression as social aggression, which includes indirect aggression, spreading rumors of one’s character and hurting someone’s reputation or self-esteem. In today’s programming reality television has more relational aggressive acts than regular television programming (Patino, Kaltcheva, Smith, 2011). Surprisingly, researchers found relational aggression more common than physical aggression in the media, specifically, in reality television (Carlson Ward, 2013). However, teenagers exposed to physical aggression and relational aggression had the same effects. In other words, exposure to any type of aggressive behavior, physical or relational, led to aggressive responses and reactions in both male and female teenagers. Teenager’s response to media proved to have both short-term and long-term effects (Swartzwelder White, 2013). In the short term, marketing and advertising showed significant results in sales after product was shown during a reality program (Patino et al, 2011).In the long-term, affects have been shown as late as 15 years increase (Coyne, Robinson, Nelson, 2010). Specifically, when teenagers connected with characters on television they were more likely to watch for longer periods of time. With ideas of how to react to real life situations left in the mind of a teenager could shape how they view the world (Patino et al, 2011). Since the first reality show aired in 1994, reality television has become the choice of media for teens in the U.S. Year-by-year viewer’s ratings continue to increase (Coyne et al, 2010; Carlson Ward, 2013) with forty percent of television watched by teenagers coming from reality shows (Carlson Ward, 2013). It is a popular media. Within this new genre, verbal and relational aggression is rampant (Carlson Ward, 2013; Coyne et al, 2010). Reality programming displayed 25.1 relational aggressive acts per hour, while non-reality TV displayed 8.7 acts per hour (Carlson Ward, 2013).When all forms of aggression were combined, verbal, relational, direct and indirect, it averaged 85 aggressive acts per hour (Coyne et al, 2010). When teenagers viewed relational aggression it led to other forms of aggression, especially when teenagers identified or connected with the characters (Coyne et al, 2010). Teenagers showed higher levels of aggressive behavior (Coyne et al, 2010), when they made a connection with the characters (Carlson Ward, 2013) and had the ability to interact or participate in the reality shows, such as voting off characters or choosing the best to win. Studies found realism played a huge role in the effects of reality television. If teens thought reality TV was real, not manipulated by producers to create drama, they were inclined to watch more reality programs (Carlson Ward, 2013). Despite the manipulation, studies still found teenagers drawn to watch reality TV because it satisfied a need (Coyne et al, 2010; Ferguson, Salmond, Modi, 2013). One study found conflicting results. An internal survey given by the Girl Scout Research Institute took a non-random sample of 1141 teenage girls (Ferguson et al, 2013). By using the uses and gratifications approach in an online questionnaire, girls were more confident after they watched reality programming and displayed no affects of relational aggression (Ferguson et al, 2013). Researchers thought relational aggression should not be a concern to the public and found the effects may be more â€Å"subtle and complex† (Ferguson et al, 2013). Researchers studied teenager’s motivations in watching reality television, while questioning their values. Teens were motivated when programs displayed realism, physically attractive characters, and popular among friends, (Pantino, Kaltcheva, Smith, 2011). The uses and gratifications approach was useful to find out why teens chose reality TV rather than non-reality TV. Researchers concluded they desired voyeurism, connection with characters and vengeance (Coyne et al, 2013). Teenagers also learned to mimic the behavior portrayed by those who they look up to, who they connected to in reality television. As teenagers consumed more reality programming, with aggression in its midst, they found teens had more aggressive behavior. Consumption is related to behavioral effects (Carlson Ward, 2013), but what has not been discovered is the quantity of social aggression in reality television and its related effects (Coyne et al, 2013). Majority of researchers came to the same conclusion, reality television affects both male and female. When researchers compared the effects between girls and boys, they found no differences (Carlson Ward, 2013). Concerning relational aggression, girls showed more aggression than boys, while boys displayed more physical aggression than the girls (Coyne et al, 2013). With miniscule differences, boys are more physically aggressive and girls tend to have a saucy mouth. As a whole, the results indicate a current trend in teenagers, specifically with watching reality television. Teenagers tend to have changes in their attitudes and behaviors similar to the ones they watch regularly on reality television. In addition, studies have shown it takes just a few hours of exposure to display negative effects (Coyne et al, 2013; White , Swartzwelder 2013). These literature reviews revealed aggression had the same effects on boys than on girls. However, for future research understanding the associations between teenagers and realism on TV is important because it could help in assessing the severity of relational aggression among teenagers. Hypothesis 1: Teenagers who see abusive behavior, such as hitting, kicking or pushing others, in reality television programs, will have an increase in aggressive behavior, with boys experiencing a greater increase than girls. Hypothesis 2: Teenagers who see aggressive behavior, such as spreading rumors or damaging someone’s reputation or self-esteem, in reality television programs, will have an increase in relational aggressive behavior, with girls experiencing a greater increase than boys. METHOD Participants Participants are 60 students from a middle school located in suburban Jacksonville, Fl. Half of the students are male, the other half female. The ages range from 11-14 years. As a random sample, there will be no consideration on race. However, the sample size is divided up by each grade, meaning 20 students from the sixth grade, 20 students from the seventh grade, and 20 students from the eighth grade. Measures Exposure to reality programs then observed . Students would watch a 30-minute top-rated program once a week in class. Programs shown will have social aggressive behavior throughout, such as The Challenge: Cutthroat, Jersey Shore and Survivor (Carlson Ward, 2013). Then an observer would watch their behavior and report the results. Procedure Students are invited to participate on a voluntary basis with their parent’s permission. After a few weeks of getting the permission of the parents, an observer would visit each classroom and show a reality program on video. The program would run for 30-minutes, then shortly afterwards the student’s behavior would be observed for additional 30-minutes. The total time needed is approximately one hour per classroom visitation. The observer will fill out a Likert Scale before and after the reality show is played (Appendix A) to show the differences of behavior. References Carlson, C. Ward, M.L., (2013). Modeling meanness: Associations between reality TV  consumption, perceived realism, and adolescents’ social aggression. Media Psychology,  16 (4), 371-389. doi:10.1080/15213269.2013.832627 Coyne, S. M., Robinson, S. L., Nelson, D. A. (2010). Does reality backbite? Physical,  verbal, and relational aggression in reality television programs. Journal Of  Broadcasting Electronic Media, 54(2), 282-298. doi:10.1080/08838151003737931 Examples of likert scaled responses used in data-gathering. (n.d.). Retrieved from Interactive Activity %20Examples%20of%20Likert%20scales.pdf Ferguson, C., Salmond, K., Modi, K. (n.d.). Reality television predicts both positive and  negative outcomes for adolescent girls. Journal of Pediatrics, 162(6), 1175-1180. Patino, A., Kaltcheva, V. D., Smith, M. F. (2011). The Appeal of Reality Television  For Teen and Pre-Teen Audiences. Journal Of Advertising Research, 51(1), 288-297. White, A.M., Swartzwelder, S. (2013). What are they thinking?!: The straight facts about the  risk-taking, social-networking, still-developing teen brain. New York: W.W. Norton   Company, Inc. Appendix A (â€Å"Examples of likert scaled responses used in data gathering,† n.d.) How Are Tension And Suspense Built Up? How Are Tension And Suspense Built Up? Novels such as TRR and TTTH were very popular during Victorian times, and some people think that this was partly a reaction to the development of science during the period that was known as The Enlightenment. The scientific age taught that there was a reason for everything, and that emotions like fear should be repressed. Horror stories like these led to many of the horror films that we watch in the cinema today, and people liked them for the same reasons; being scared is exciting, and lets the person watching or reading experience this in safety. Writers knew that people enjoyed the genre, and so they used a variety of ways to make sure that the interest of the reader was maintained, and they would want to read more. Both Edgar Allen Poe and H.G. Wells use the traditional Gothic conventions to explore human fear and the power of the imagination, particularly using tension and anti-climax to make an exciting rhythm. I have read the short stories TRR by HGW and TTTH by EAP, and in this essay I hope to show how each author developed and maintained tension and suspense. Many of the methods are used in both stories, and are based on standard Gothic conventions such as duality, the weather, the setting, fear of the unknown, the supernatural, mystery and dread; they also use metonyms for doom and gloom, such as doors slamming shut and gusts of wind blowing out lights. In TTTH the tension starts with the first sentence, TRUE! nervous very, very dreadfully nervous. The writer uses capital letters and exclamation marks to cause surprise and fear, and follows this with a short, repetitive sentence. He then immediately draws the reader in by asking why they think he is mad, when clearly they had not had that thought themselves. The mood is approaching hysteria, which was a great fear in Victorian times. The author then mentions many things that are opposite to each other, such as heaven and hell, day and night and the fact that although he had nothing against the old man in his story, the fact that he had the eye of a vulture meant that he would have to kill him. Once the tension is in place, the author slows the pace by lengthening the sentences, but keeps the reader in a state of fear through his use of language. He continues to repeat words cautiously oh, so cautiously cautiously, making the narrator seem even more mad, even though he is trying to explain that he isnt. He gives a very intense description of the darkness inside the old mans room black as pitch with the thick darkness, making the reader aware that it is under the cover of this darkness that the evil deed will take place. The suspense starts to grow again when the narrator says that he made a mistake with the lantern, and that small sound woke up the old man. Neither of them moved for over an hour, and it almost feels like you are holding your breath with the two people in the story. After a long time, the old man groans, and this gives rise to more hysterical thoughts by the narrator, the sentences slow again, and the language less staccato and very dramatic Death, in approaching him had stalked with his black shadow before him, so the reader knows that something awful is bound to happen soon. The momentum builds further as the narrator opens the lantern, which fell full upon the vulture eye, and making it clear that the old man now also knows for certain that he is in danger. The narrator becomes furious, and believes that he can hear the beat of the old mans heart. The rhythm of the work gets faster, choppy sentences and a lot of exclamation marks and more repetition increase the excitement with th e beat of the hellish tattoo; then the crescendo, The old mans hour had come! The actual murder is over in a moment, and this sudden drop away from extreme terror to the narrator saying that he smiled gaily to find the deed so done exaggerates the tension. The next concern for the reader is whether or not the murder will be discovered, and the author increases this worry by describing the dismemberment of the body in quite graphic detail. The mood of the piece is changing again, with the description of as dark as midnight making way for I went down to open it (the door) with a light heart as the police arrive. The narrator takes the police on a very long journey through the house, asking them to search search well, and this makes the reader become anxious about when or if they will find the evidence of the old mans death. The language is calm and this adds to the impression of time passing slowly. As the characters sit and talk, the narrator starts to get more agitated; he can hear a strange noise getting closer. The pace picks up, the vocabulary starts to get more hysterical I arose and argued about trifles, in a high key and with violent gesticulations, it grows more repetitive, and the punctuation is full of exclamation marks. It b uilds to another climax, when the narrator says I felt that I must scream or die! and now again ! hark! louder! louder! louder! louder!. The reader will be on the edge of their seat by now, wondering what on earth will happen next; and is immediately dropped from this state of expectancy as the narrator shrieks his admission of guilt to the police, and the story comes to a sudden and dramatic close. TRR starts in a similar fashion, with the piece being written in the first person so that the reader can quickly identify with them, and feel what they are going through. The physical scene is set in more detail, with careful descriptions of the hideous features of the people involved in the story, and how the narrator felt about them. The three of them made me feel uncomfortable with their gaunt silences, their bent carriage, their evident unfriendliness to me and to one another. He had come to disprove a ghost story, and was not afraid, but these grotesque custodians were affecting him a lot; which helps to slowly start to wind up the tension in the story. The language of this early section involves words such as withered, inhuman, senility, night, darkness, dead, haunted and evil, all of which add to the suspense, and are standard ways of creating fear in this kind of novel. As the narrator decides to move on to the Red Room, to discover more about the alleged haunting, the other characters seem to try to stop him, suggesting that this is not a good time for him to go there. But if you go to the Red Room tonight , this sentence tails off, letting the reader imagine what the man might have been going to say. The old woman whispers this night of all nights, and as the narrator leaves to continue his ghost hunt, the man with the withered arm says Its your own choosing. So there are plenty of warnings, and the state of tension in the readers mind is maintained as the narrator sets off down the chilly, echoing passage. This passage is further described as long and shadowy, with a film of moisture glistening on the wall, (was) as gaunt and cold as a thing that is dead and rigid, and this journey to the room makes use of many other words chosen to create as much fear as possible, talking about ghosts, omens, and witches. The author also uses shadows, flickerin g candles, darkness and cold to great effect, making certain that the reader is anxious before the Red Room is even reached. Arriving at the room itself, it is described as being in a shadowy corner, and then a detailed description of the room and its contents is given. Again, the language is very imaginative, and this increases tension as the narrator tells us that it looks very frightening, and that one could well understand the legends that had sprouted in its black corners, its germinating darkness. As he tells the reader about each item, the sense of waiting for something bad to happen is very strong. He mentions his scientific attitude of mind, which was very popular in Victorian times, but then destroys any confidence this might cause by saying that he caught sight of his own face in a mirror, and despite his rational approach, it was absolutely white. Now that he has admitted to being frightened, the narrator builds on this by describing how he tries to make himself safe in the room, by lighting candles, getting his gun ready, and making a barricade out of a table. He tells us that he is in a state of considerable nervous tension, and goes out to get more candles until the room is as brightly lit as possible; then the wait begins. The candles start to go out, and its even more frightening that they do so one at a time; a note of hysteria creeps into his voice as he starts to try to relight the candles, and he becomes panic stricken. The fear is everywhere, and the pace is building, with the narrator crashing around the room desperate to stop the darkness from overwhelming him. When finally even the fire goes out, he says it was not only palpable darkness, but intolerable terror. At this moment the reader is certain that something appalling will happen, and the narrator screams with all his might once, twice, thrice. He runs for the door, knocks himself out, and knows no more. At this point he is completely vulnerable to whatever malevolent spirit might be present. The opposite to darkness rescues the narrator, as he opens his eyes in the daylight, and the tension is broken for a moment. His rescuers take a more friendly approach to him, and in daylight he wonders why he previously disliked them. They ask if he now believes that the room is haunted, and he agrees that it is. This reinstates the feelings of fear and tension as the reader wonder what he is about to reveal. Two of the custodians have their own theories about who the ghost may be, but the narrator cuts them short, and tells them that it is not, building the tension further. The old people and the readers are now on the edge of their seats, as in The Tell Tale Heart, waiting for the climax of the story. The speed of the text increases, with choppy sentences and a lot of punctuation as he announces Fear! Fear that will not have light nor sound, that will not bear with reason, that deafens and darken and overwhelms. This is a great contrast against the scientific theories of the time, making the reader question rationality, and would increase fear. The story ends with the last of the three custodians joining in the conversation, defining the haunting as A Power of Darkness, a curse upon the home. As the reader has already been asked to put aside rational scientific thoughts, this makes it even worse, by making them think that such a curse might be able to put on their own home. The tension continues right up to the last moment Fear itself is in that room. Black Fear..And there is will long as this house of sin endures.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Themes Of Unity In The Grapes Essays -- essays research papers

John Steinbeck's novel, The Grapes of Wrath, is a moving account of the social plight of Dustbowl farmers and is widely considered an American classic. The novel takes place during the depression of the 1930s in Oklahoma and all points west to California. Steinbeck uses the Joad family as a specific example of the general plight of the poor farmers. The Joads are forced off of their farm in Oklahoma by the banks and drought, and they, like many other families of the time, head out for the promised land of California. They endure much hardship along the way, and they finally make it to California only to find that work is scarce and human labor and life are cheap. Tom Joad, the eldest son in the family, starts the book freshly out of jail and slowly evolves from selfish goals to a sense of an ideal worldly purpose in uniting people against injustice. Jim Casy, an errant preacher who is accepted into the Joad family early into the story, changes his beliefs to include all people in a s ort of oversoul, as he helps to organize the workers to battle the extreme injustice done onto them by the farm owners and discriminating locals. Whereas the Joads start out as one family, by the end of the story their family becomes one with other families who are weathering the same plight of starvation and senseless violence. In The Grapes of Wrath, Steinbeck emphasizes the power of groups over the individual's power to survive poverty and violence through character evolution, plot and the use of figurative and philosophical language.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Tom Joad begins the novel with self-seeking aims, but with the ex-preacher Jim Casy as a mentor, he evolves into an idealistic group leader. Tom first meets Jim on his way home from jail. There begins a lasting friendship with the verbose preacher, who is going through a belief makeover and steadily moving toward the Emersonian oversoul including all people in a general spirit of human love and kinship. Tom is steadily angered more and more with his family's plight, but even into the beginning of the family's journey, he still has individualistic thoughts that consume his ideas. When Jim is trying to get Tom to think of the big picture, to get a worldly view of the effects of the hundreds of thousands of people moving west, Tom says, 'I'm still laying my dogs down one at a time,'; and 'I climb fences when I got fe... ...e way for the concern of the people'; (Bowden 196). And most critics agree that 'the sense of communal unit grows steadily through [Steinbeck's] narrative'; (Lisca 97). In the chapters that explain the general situation of life in California, Steinbeck figuratively and philosophically explains the evolution of unity and equality.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Grapes of Wrath clearly demonstrates the theme that when overcoming hardship the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. At the end of the story Ma Joad has come to understand that her family is just part of another larger family of the migrant poor. Tom Joad comes full circle from individualistic aims to embracing the group and organization of the masses. The main events in the Joads' life at the government camp and the strike at the peach orchards also emphasize unity. At times in his narrative Steinbeck even blatantly explains his philosophies of group power and shared burden. As one critic puts it 'The family of man is even more than a necessity for the Joads: it is an ideal of the novel'; (Bowden 199). Steinbeck truly succeeds in giving the reader the message that when united people stand, but divided they fall.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Finding Deeper Meaning in Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat :: Ode to the Death of a Favorite Cat Essays

Finding Deeper Meaning in Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   First impressions are important when meeting new people, applying for jobs, and even when reading literature. It provides us with an idea of what is going on, where things are taking place, and who the important characters are. This first impression can be described is the Pre-Critical Response; the average reader performs this type of analysis every time he or she reads. For some people, this simplistic perspective is satisfactory; others find the quest for deeper understanding intriguing and part of the ultimate experience gained through literature.    The Formalistic Approach is one way to analyze literature in order to gain fuller understanding. This approach examines a piece of literature by identifying its individual structures and form. It studies sentence structure in terms of verb placement, the multiple meanings and etymology of words, and the stanza and line breaks. The Formalistic Approach stresses sensitivity to words and their connotations, denotations, and implications they may have to surrounding words and phrases. Location, setting, place, and time are other aspects identified through this approach. Formalistic analysis is referred as "...close reading in practice" (HCAL 73).    The Dialogical Approach recognizes "...the essential indeterminacy of meaning outside of the dialogic - and hence open - relationship between voices" (HCAL 349). The voices of a novel or work create a dimension all their own. Dialogical's creator, Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin, uses the key term of carnivalization to describe the "...diversities of speech and voice reflected in its structure" (HCAL 351). Mood and tone are derived from this and can be further amplified through the Formalistic Approach of analysis.    My Pre-Critical Response to Thomas Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Gold Fishes" is as follows: A cat was playing with a fish in the fish bowl. The cat fell in and then drowned because none cared enough to save her. When I take a second look, details of the setting and location; language usage and sentence patterns; tone and mood; deeper meanings to the poem can be found. The Formalistic and Dialogical Approaches can be used to find these deeper meanings.    Setting and location are essential when creating atmosphere.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Rashomon Essay

The book is laid out in sequence. It opened up with the testimony of the woodcutter who was being interviewed by a high police commissioner. The woodcutter proceeded to tell the commissioner that he had just stumbled on a crime scene – a man wearing a bluish silk kimono with his face on the ground with fatal wound on his chest. This set up the tempo for the book. After each interview, the story jumps into another character’s testimony. It tells the story through the perspectives of the characters where they are all witness of a crime where a samurai had been murdered. There were a few witnesses to the crime: woodcutter, traveling Buddhist priest, policeman, bandit, old woman, his wife, and the man himself through a medium. Each one of the testimonies given by the witnesses differs from one another. The only thing they all had in common was that a samurai was killed. The book and the movie sets it up where we the reader are the jury of the crime. They all started telling what they have seen, what had happen, what were they doing, and how did they stumbled upon the murder scene. It’s almost like an exercise of finding out the truth based on the testimony given by each witness. Where we (readers and viewers) come to a consensus of determining who is the one telling the truth among them. Which is hard because they were all subjective interpretations of all witnesses. There isn’t anything that would point out who the real culprit is. After doing some research of the time frame when this book was written, I found out that the scenes that the author was trying to portray was pretty much identical to the time period that the book was trying to portray. It was written during the 20th century, a time where social disintegration and population distress prevalent. Most of the population practiced Buddhism, Shinto, and Taoism, which reflected in the movie when the husband was giving his testimony through a medium. The medium was his wife, which also seems like one of the short story that we read, Sotoba Komachi. Which have the same situation where the woman have done something terrible to a man therefore she is punished by having her body possessed by the man that she had wronged. During this time period, Buddhism was on the rise along with Shinto. It was apparent on the film when the opening scene showed Rashomon (Rajomon gate), which was the main gate for Kyoto. The gate looked devastated and torn down because during that time there was plenty of natural disasters and buildings being set on fire and also gangs and vigilantes were prevalent during this time that tried to rebel against the corrupt governors. The book and the movie showed the correlation with the time period by showing us how bad the living conditions are, or any of the characters situations are for that matter. In particular was the former samurai servant. Where he had taken refuge from the rain under the bridge but have no idea what to do after the rain stops because he was just discharged by his master. He was troubled about what the future holds for him. He didn’t have a job and also depressed because of it. Since he thought his situation was desperate, he started to debate whether he should look for a job and spend his life working as an honest man or become a thief. Regardless, the outcome wasn’t in his favor. After some time spending in the gate, the samurai servant cross path with a woman. Their situation was further magnified when the author described the environment of the place that they were taking refuge in – it was so bad that they didn’t care that the place was littered with copses. So many corpses that he had to watch where he step so that he wouldn’t trip over them and he couldn’t count how many there were around him. Also the stench of the corpses didn’t bother them. The servant started to investigate the noise that he heard from upstairs. There he encountered an old woman who he thought was a wretched hag. The old woman was there because she was plucking hairs from the corpses for her to use as a wig. This was the time where the samurai servant decided that he would go down the path of living as a thief by robbing her of her kimono. After reading and watching the movie, I think the movie stayed true to the book. The film uses flashbacks during the testimonies of the witnesses, which I thought was great because it cleared things up a little bit more. The scenes put you in the situation that they were in and try to relay the experience to you from their viewpoint. It showed the story being influenced by the characters emotions and the accuracy changes from person to person which is probably the intended objective of the director. The sequence of the witnesses was different in the movie than the book. In the movie, they used one of the guys in the Rashomon taking refuge as a witness where in the book – to me, it seems like the movie used none of the witness that was in Rashomon. I could be mistaken because in the movie, the opening scene was under the Rashomon and three guys were talking about what happened. They seemed in disarray at first and then it jumped to a scene where one of the guys was walking in the woods and discovered the carcass, from there the scene transitioned to the characters taking turns giving their testimony. In the book, there were two people in Rashomon taking refuge from the rain; it was a samurai servant and an old woman. Although the movie did a great job on using flashbacks to paint a clearer picture on what happened. There was no backstory on the characters. They were all portrayed as country-dwellers and vagabond staying in Rashomon. The only one that was clear to me was the wife, samurai, and the bandit. In the movie, they showed the woman was kissed and the scene cut out after that, allowing the audience to guess what happened. I would imagine that the scene was shocking since it was they very first kiss that was captured on film. Also, during the kiss, I thought that the woman was fighting it at first but then seemed to relax and go with it as the camera faded. For those who haven’t read the book, it might seem like that’s the only thing they did but he did much more things to her than just kiss – the woman was raped. It’s hard to guess that if you haven’t read the book. The only thing that I can think of that can possibly give away that the woman was raped was the reaction of the husband. His emotion changed from struggling to escape and angrily, to staring off in the distance and at peace with himself. This reaction was probably based on the Japanese culture where the woman is now given a choice between her rapist and her husband. I like how the author showcased the culture during that period, the reaction of the husband towards the wife whenever she succumbs to the bandit and how it portrayed the samurai. To the samurai, she had committed an act against him that did not warrant him to show any emotions. He understood that it was a loss cost fighting for her whenever she made the decision to let the bandit do whatever he wants with her. After reading and watching Rashomon, it’s easier to understand how Japan has been struggling with their identity. I lived in Japan for a couple years, which gave me a brief idea how the Japanese culture is. Their culture is very hospitable and very welcoming. During my stay there, not once did I feel threatened or feel like I was in some kind of danger. I never knew that Japan was just literally coming out of the medieval period transitioning to the industrial period. The only way I can explain that is, a baby that just learned how to turn on its belly then all of a sudden started trying to sprint. Which would also explain how hard they are trying to hold on to their tradition but slowly losing it, because the young generations are trying to embrace the western culture. The book and the movie did a fantastic job in showing the living condition during the time period. It’s hard to believe that just a couple of decades from that period, Japan was still struggling and fighting to have a democracy. In the span of a couple decades – Japan would have built an army that rivals the military power of the western world. Not only build, but also, declare a war with the western powers.